Monarchs of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty reigned over Egypt from 1805 to 1953. Their rule also extended to Sudan and the Levant throughout much of this period, as well as to Hejaz during the first half of the 19th century. The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was founded by Muhammad Ali Pasha (pictured), an Albanian commander in the expeditionary force sent by the Ottoman Empire in 1801 to dislodge the French occupation of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte. Isma'il Pasha is a notable monarch of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty because of his inauguration of the Suez Canal and for his Haussmann-inspired rebuilding of Cairo. Farouk I was Egypt and Sudan's penultimate monarch. After his forced abdication following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, his infant son, Fuad II, continued to reign as a nominal king-in-exile until the monarchy was formally abolished on 18 June 1953. (more...)
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