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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Swadesh list of Lezgic languages, that was deleted or is being discussed for deletion, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Author(s): Msgj Search for "Swadesh list of Lezgic languages" on Google
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The Lezgic languages are one of seven main branches of the Northeast Caucasian language family.

The Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages via comparison. It contains a set of 207 basic words which can be found in every language and are rarely borrowed. The list here is in IPA. In comparative techniques, orthography is never used unless there is no phonetic data.

Dialectal differentiation

Table

Lezgic languages
Translation Proto-Lezgic Lezgic languages
Archi[1] Samur languages
Eastern Samur languages Southern Samur languages Western Samur languages
Udi Lezgi–Aghul–Tabasaran Kryts Budukh Rutul Tsakhur
Lezgi[2] Aghul Tabasaran
I /zon/[3] /zun/ /zun/
you (singular) /un/ /wun/ /wun/
he
we /nen/[3] /t͡ʃun/ /xun/ incl.
/t͡ʃun/ excl.
you (plural) /ʒʷen/ /kyn/
they /teb/[3]
this /jamu/, /jaw/ /i/ /me/
that /tot/, /tob/ neut.
/tor/ fem.
/tuw/ masc.
/a/ /te/
here /iʃík/ /ina/
there /ana/
who /kʷi/ /wuʒ/ /fiʃ/
what /wut͡ʃ/ /fi/
where /danna/ /hina/
when /mus/
how /hikʼ/
not /tʼo/ (stat. v) /tuʃ/ /da/
all /óbʃːi/ 'all, whole, every' /biri/ /wari/
many /ɡzaf/ 'a lot' /pːari/ 'a lot'
some /ospará/
few
other
one /os/ /sad/ /sad/
two /qˤʷʼe/ /qʷʼed/ /ʡad/
three /ʟ̝̊eb/ /pud/
four /ebqʼ/ /qʼud/
five /ʟ̝̊ːo/ /vad/
big /dóːˤz/ (st. v.) /tʃʼeχi/
long -láːχa- 'long, tall' (st. v.) /ærʁi/ /irχef/
wide qʼʷa (st. v.)
thick
heavy -iqʼʷˤ- (st. v.)
small /tʼi/ (st. v.) /ʁʷet͡ʃʼi /bit͡sʼif/
short /kúːtʼa/ (st. v.)
narrow /qʼʷˤáqʼˤar/ (st. v.)
thin
woman /ʟ̝̊ːonnól/ /pab/ /xir/
man (male) /boʃór/ /itim/ /ʃuj/
human being /insán/ /kas/ /idemi/
child /lo/
wife /ʟ̝̊ːonnól/
husband /boʃór/
mother
father
animal
fish /ʁed/ /t͡ʃʼekʼ/
bird /nykʼ/ /d͡ʒaqʷʼ/
dog /ɡʷátʃi/ /kit͡sʼ/ /ʁuj/
louse /nat͡sʼ/ /net/ /net/
snake /jáˤtʼi/
worm /χʷárʃi/
tree /qʷátʼi/ /tar/ /kʼur/
forest /χːʷak/
stick /kʼuħán/
fruit /áχəran/
seed /muh/ 'grain, seed' /tum/ /tum/
leaf /kʼát͡ʃʼi/ 'leaf, sheet' /peʃ/ /pad͡ʒ/
root /márχːu/ /duwul/ /marʡ/
bark (of a tree) /páqʼut/ /t͡ʃkal/ /qːark/
flower /tʼeˤ/
grass /hóti/
rope /báˤkʼon/
skin /qal/ /χam/ /χam/
meat /ak͡ʟ̝̊ʼ/ /æk/ /jak/
blood /bi/ /iwi/ /iʡ/
bone /lékːi/ /kʼarab/ /irk/
fat (noun) /mij/ /pi/ /maw/
egg /ɡénuk/ /kaka/ /ʁuraʁal/
horn /bat/ /kart͡ʃ/ /kʼart͡ʃ/
tail /oˤt͡ʃ/
qʼutːúl 'fatty ~ (sheep)'
/qʼat͡ʃʼ/ /rud͡ʒ/
feather /t͡sal/ /t͡sʼakul/ /murt͡s/
hair /t͡ʃʼáːˤri/ /t͡ʃʼar/ /t͡ʃʼar/
head /kártʼi/ (of a man)
/oˤnt/ (of a woman or animal)
/qʼil/ /kʼil/
ear /oj/ /æb/ /ibur/
eye /lur/ /wil/ /ul/
nose /mut͡ʃ/ /ner/
mouth /soːb/ /siw/ /siw/
tooth /sot/ /sas/ /sileb/
tongue /mat͡s/ /mez/ /mez/
fingernail /k͡ʟ̝̊ʼontʼól/ /kek/ /kirk/
foot
leg /kʷʼat͡ʃ/
knee /met/
hand /ʁil/ /ʁil/
wing
belly
guts
neck /ɡardan/ /ɡardan/
back
breast /χur/ /muχur/
heart /rikʼ/ /jurkʼ/
liver /leqʼ/ /lekʼ/
to drink /qʰun/ /uχas
to eat /tʼyn/ /ʡytʼas/
to bite /kʼasun/ /qʼat͡sʼikas/
to suck
to spit
to vomit
to blow
to breathe
to laugh
to see /akun/ /aɡwas/
to hear /wan xun/ /un xas/
to know /t͡ʃir xun/
to think
to smell
to fear
to sleep /ksun/ /ʁarxas/
to live
to die /qʼin/ /kʼes/
to kill /qʼin/ /kʼes/
to fight /ánχːas/
to hunt
to hit
to cut
to split /qːˤʼel/
to stab
to scratch
to dig
to swim /sirnaw awun/ /salaw aqʼas/
to fly /luw ɡun/ /ʁiʃas/
to walk
to come /atun/ /adis/
to lie (as in a bed) /qatkun/ /aqu xas/
to sit /at͡suqʼun/
to stand /aqʷazun/ /quzanas/
to turn (intransitive)
to fall
to give /ɡun/ /is/
to hold
to squeeze
to rub
to wash
to wipe
to pull
to push
to throw
to tie
to sew
to count
to say /luhun/ /pas/
to sing
to play
to float
to flow
to freeze
to swell
sun /raʁ/ /raʁ/
moon /warz/ /waz/
star /ʁed/ /ʡad/
water /ʟ̝̊ːan/ /æd/ /xed/ /ʃid/ /xed/ /xan/
rain /marf/ /marx/
river
lake
sea
salt
stone /qʷan/ /ʁwan/ /ʁwan/
sand /qum/ /qːum/
dust
earth /t͡ʃil/ /d͡ʒil/
cloud /t͡sif/ /dif/ /dif/
fog
sky
wind
snow
ice
smoke /ɡum/ /kum/ /kum/ /kuma/
fire /t͡sʼaj/ /t͡sʼa/ /t͡sʼa/ /t͡sʼaj/ /t͡sʼaj/
ash /ryqʰ/
to burn /kun/ /uɡas/ /ubɡub/
road /reqʰ/ /req/
mountain /suw/ /su/ /ban/
red /æru/ /iref/ /yru/
green /qat͡su/ /t͡ʃire/ /t͡ʃru/
yellow /qili/
white /lat͡su/ /d͡ʒaɡwarf/
black /t͡ʃʼulaw/ /kʼare/ /kʼaru/
night /jif/ /ʡyʃ/ /jiʃʷ/
day
year
warm /kudaj/ 'hot' /kyt͡ʃef/ 'hot'
cold /meqʼi/ /ruʁuf/
full /at͡sʼaj/ /at͡sʼuf/
new /t͡sʼiji/ /t͡sʼajif/ /t͡sʼiji/
old
good /qʰsan/ /id͡ʒef/ /uʒu/
bad
rotten
dirty
straight
round /ɡurɡutʼ/ /ɡurɡænf/ /ɡerɡmi/
sharp
dull
smooth
wet
dry /qʼuraj/ /ruqːuf/
correct
near
far
right
left
at
in
with
and
if
because
name /t͡sʼor/ /tʷʼar/ /tur/ /t͡ʃʷur/ /dur/ /do/

References

See also

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Swadesh list of Lezgic languages, that was deleted or is being discussed for deletion, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Author(s): Aeusoes1 Search for "Swadesh list of Lezgic languages" on Google
View Wikipedia's deletion log of "Swadesh list of Lezgic languages"
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