FANDOM



Latin grammar</tr>

Conjugation
Subjunctive by attraction
Indirect statements
Declension
Uses of the ablative
Uses of the dative

In Latin grammar, the subjunctive by attraction (or attracted subjunctive) refers to uses of the subjunctive mood as the result of "attraction" or "assimilation" to another subjunctive or equivalent imperative. The name also applies to subjunctives used when a subordinate clause is "so closely connected with an infinitive as to form an integral part of" it.[1]

Accounting for the subjunctive assimilated or attracted to another subjunctive

One authority explains the usage as follows:[2]

In complex sentences made up of a main sentence with subjunctive verb and one or more subordinate sentences, the modal feeling in the speaker's mind which expresses itself in the main sentence is, in the nature of things, very likely to continue in the speaker's mind in the subordinated sentence or sentences, either quite unchanged or but slightly shaded. If, for example, I say in Latin, 'Let him send whom he will,' mittat quem velit, the mood in velit is not a case of 'attraction' or 'assimilation' at all. Velit is as much a jussive as mittat is. The meaning is, 'Let him choose his man and send that man.' Again, the frequent recurrence of such examples gives rise to the occasional use of a dependent subjunctive with only a formal likeness to the main subjunctive, and no true modal feeling."

Another authority contests this reasoning:

I am unable to admit the soundness of this reasoning. To my mind Hale seems to do great violence to the interpretation of the passage above cited. (Cf. Dittmar's review of Frank, Berl. Phil. Wochenschrlft, xxv, col. 919 ff. Dittmar, however, rejects emphatically the theory of a mechanical attraction.) I do not believe it legitimate to read into velit the jussive force which Hale attributes to it. Much less can I admit the justice of Frank's statement (op. cit. p. 4) that Hale's interpretation of the mood of velit is beyond dispute, or that the modal feeling of the main verb is shared by the dependent subjunctive in sentences like the following (cited by Frank, p. 5): Bacch. 656, furetur quod queat; Hec. 196, di vortant bene quod agas; Bacch. 673, occasio fuit ut quantum velles tantum sumeres.
I am, therefore, inclined to believe that in the phenomenon under consideration we are to recognize a purely formal and mechanical attraction. At least I cannot recognize the validity of the evidence offered in support of the origin advocated by Hale and Frank.
In a very large number of instances traditionally regarded as illustrations of attraction, Frank recognizes 'anticipatory' subjunctives (p. 11 ff.). But the existence of an 'anticipatory' subjunctive in Latin rests on too slender a foundation, in my judgment, to warrant its recognition in this type of clause. Especially must one question the legitimacy of recognizing an 'anticipatory' subjunctive in clauses dependent upon another subjunctive until clear instances of an 'anticipatory' are found following a main clause in the indicative. The passages cited by Frank, p. 13, are not of this kind. Every present subjunctive naturally contains a future force; but so does every future indicative. The theories of Hale and Frank give no satisfactory explanation of the employment of the subjunctive rather than the future indicative in the subordinate subjunctive clauses in the examples cited in great number by Frank, p. 16 ff. So far as I can see, only the theory of a mechanical attraction will account for the presence of the subjunctive in these clauses.

Classification of subjunctives attracted or assimilated to another subjunctive

The main classification is determined by the nature of the governing clause:

Dependent on a jussive or prohibitive

With relatives

e.g. Bacch. 657, furetur quod queat; Capt. 548, ne tu quod istic fabuletur inmittas; M. G.190; 731; 1230, quod cupiam ne gravetur; Most. 1100, quod agas id agas; Pseud. 237; Stich. 149, neque me celassis quod scias; Hec. 391; Cato, Agr. 2, 6, reliqua quae sint, uti conpareant; quae opus sint locato, locentur; quae supersint, uti veneant; Plaut. Frag. 88, quique liceat veneat.

With si, sin

Amph. 819, si pudoris egeas, sumas mutuom ; 961, tristis sit, si sint tristes; hilaris sit, si gaudeant; Asin. 763, si pictura sit, vendat; Aul. 591, sin dormitet, ita dormitet; M. G. 188; 293, si te di ament, tollas; Rud. 834, abeas, si velis; Trin. 370, ne prohibeas, si det; True. 233; 839; 855; Cato, Agr. 2, 6, si quid desit, uti paretur; 2, 7; 5,1.

With ubi

Bacch. 653, ubiquomque usus siet, expromat; Pers. 70; True. 230, ubi nil det, mittat domum; 232; Cato, Agr. 3, 2, ubi lecta siet, oleum fiat.

With other particles

dum (2): Poen. 20, neu ducat, dum in scaena siet; True. 232, dum habeat tum (Lamb. conj. dum) amet; guom: Pers. 152, ut adfleat, quom memoret; quando: Pseud. 307, quando nil sit, amare desinat; quam: Hec. 634, dum ne redducam, turbent porro quam velint; ut: Amph. 960, eri ut sint, ipse item sit; Bacch. 662, utquomque res sit, ita animum habeat.

Dependent on a deliberative

With relatives

Amph. 434, quid ego ni negem, qui egomet eiem ? 694, te ut deludam, qui nunc primum te advenisse dicas, modo qui l,inc abieris; Bacch. 197, egou ut, quod attigisset, non impetratum redderem? M. G. 426; 497; 556; 1276; Poen. 860; Hec. 852; Enn. Trag. 148.

With quom

Bacch. 1192, egon quom haec accubet inspec- tem ? And. 943, egon patiar quom possim ? H. T. 413; Eun. 565; Hec. 341; Enn. Trag. 121; Titin. 81.

With ubi

Bacch. 1190, egon ubi filius corrumpatur meus, ibi potem ? Epid. 588; Men. 559; Phor. 970.

Dependent on an optative subjunctive

Asin. 46, di tibi dent quaequomque optes; similarly Epid. 6; M. G. 1038; Pers. 483; Poen. 1055; Stich. 469; Trin. 715, bene quod agas eveniat; Phor. 552; Pseud. 936, tantum duint quantum exoptes; Poen. 746, sus- pendant se quam quod loquantur creduam.

Dependent on a potential

With relatives

Amph. 905, quam tu impudicam esse arbi- trere et praedices, cum ea sermonem nee habeas; Capt. 961, quod ego fatear, credin pudeat ? Curc. 700, quoquo posset, mitteret; M. G. 614; 735; Poen. 92.

With ubi

Men. 603, intro abeam, ubi bene sit; Poen. 148; Eun. 1080, facile pellas, ubi veiis.

With other particles

quom: Capt. 961, credin pudeat, quom autumes ? Rud. 979; dum: Rud. 1261, dum censeret, praeda esset; ad quo: Afran. 248, iratus essem ad quo (= in quantum, Nonius) liceret.

Dependent on purpose clauses

With relatives

Aul. 605, ut quae fierent fieret particeps; Cas. 867, qui exeat, eum ut ludibrio habeas; Cist. 85; Cure. 29, ne id quod ames sit probro; Eun. 1026, ut faciam quod iubeat; Hec. 545.

With quom

Amph. 128, ut ne quaererent quom viderent me; 983, ut ministres mihi, mihi quom sacruficem ; Asin. 185, se ut quom videat, gaudeat; Aul. 278; Bacch. 908; Most. 249; Pers. 190; 191; And. 424; H. T. 854; Phor. 839; Cato, Agr. 73.

With ut

Amph. 724, ut quod obrodat sit, si male esse occeperit; Cist. 593, ne in quaestione sit, si quid velim ; Curc. 468; Merc. 231, neu discordarent, si essent; 913; Most. 922; Poen. 27; Pseud. 93; 900; Trin. 691; 755; And. 316; 728; Phor. 314; Ad. 171; 282; Enn. Ann. 194, 8. In all these cases, of course, it is entirely possible that there is no attraction, but that the si-clause represents an original 'should'-'would' condition.

With ubi

M. G. 3, ut, ubi usus veniat, praestringat; 1122; Pers. 230, ne, ubi vorsicapillus fias, servias; Pseud. 580, ut, ubi- quomque congrediar, vincam.

With quando

Bacch. 730, ut cognoscat quando legat; 768; Men. 1045; Poen. 552; Trin. 1144.

With dum

Cure. 664, ut dum vivat alat; M. G. 950; Phor. 770; 1030; Trag. Incert. 169.

With other particles

quam primum: Trin. 42, ut, quam primum possim, videam; etsi: Vid. xiii, ut piscetur, etsi sit tem- pestas; ut: Capt. 343, qui ita ut velis perferat; priusquam: Truc. 524, ne, prius quam capiat, nos exstinxit fames, quia: M. G. 7, ne lamentur quia se iam pridem feriatam gestitem.

Dependent on a substantive clause developed from the volitive or optative

With relatives

Amph. 60, facere ut sit comoedia reges quo veniant; 630, sum diligens ut quae imperes compareant; Bacch. 1173, non metuo ne quid doleat quod ferias; Capt. 257, causa ut vos servem quos si m mercatus; Curc. 550, mandasti qui attulissem ne spernerem; Poen. 6, iubet ut sedeant qui venerint; Phor. 125, lex est ut orbae qui sint proximi nubant; Stat. 162; Cato, Agr. 141, 1.

With si, nisi, etc.

Bacch. 778, adiuro ut, ni amem atque cupiam, tua latera lacerentur; 1037; M. G. 1187; Rud. 1295; And. 687, orare, si ames, ut venias.

With quom

Amph. 542, volo, ut quom absim, me ames; Aul. 273; Epid. 356; Capt. 495; Stich. 65; H. T. 1017, metuis ne non, quom velis, convincas; Cato, Agr. 28, 1.

With ubi

Bacch. 43, ut, ubi emeritum sit, se revehat; 45; M. G. 1234, ne mutent ubi viderit; Eun. 394; CIL. i, 196, censuit utei figier ioubeatis ubi facilumed gnoscier potisit.

With dum

Bacch. 1047, Ephesi multo mavellem foret, dum salvos esset; Pers. 494; Poen. 884; Rud. 499, quaeso, dum vivas, uti habeas; Ad. 681.

With quando

True. 432, ut, quando otium sit, ad me revisas; Pseud. 663; M. G. Arg. 1,11.

With quam

Most. 966, vide ne amplius quam satis fuerit biberis; Eun. 74; Hec. 729.

With other particles

etsi: Capt. 856, faciam ut cupias etsi votem; utquomque: And. 735, ut subservias utquomque opus sit, vide; prius quam: Eun. 751, cave ne, prius quam accipias, amittas.

Dependent on gain-clauses (mostly substantive)

With relatives

M. G. 369, numquam deterrebor quin viderim quod viderim; Poen. 881; Trin. 588 ; Phor. 272.

With ubi

M. G. 742, quin, ubi triduom fuerit, odiosus siet, verum ubi dies x sit; Aul. 613.

With si

`Capt. 353, numquae causast quin, si non redeat, des; Phor. 825, quin, si hoc celetur, in metu; sin patefit (note the indicative), in probro sim.

With quom

M. G. 1342, nequeo quin fleam quom abeam.

Dependent on a descriptive clause of fact ('clause of characteristic')

With relatives

Capt. 467, dies quoi minus procedat quic- quid facere occeperit; Cas. 183, nee qua in plura sint quae velim; 865; Trin. 953.

With ubi

Rud. 119, qui praefestinet, ubi erus adsit, praeloqui; Hec. 608, qui, ubiquomque opus sit, possit.

With quom

Cas. 133, unde auscultare possis, quom ausculer.

Dependent on result clauses

With relatives

Merc. 513, mos est ut praedicem quod credam; Most. 173.

With quom

Trin. 732, ut perpetiar quom habeam; Eun. 933, ut, quom cognorit, oderit; Phor. 822.

With si

Curc. 379, hunc morem ut pugnis rem solvant si quis poscat; M. G. 475, quid propius fuit quam ut perirem, si elocutus essem ? Hec. 548.

With other particles

ubi: Phor. 154, ut extimescam, ubi in mentem veniat; quam: Rud. 1242, ut cum maiore dote abeat quam advenerit; dum: H. T. 951, ut, dum vivat, meminerit.

Dependent on a subjunctive protasis

With relatives

Amph. 871, mea sit culpa, quod egomet contraxerim, si id Alcumenae expetat; Capt. 205, si sinat solutos quos emerit; Cure. 268; Pseud. 785.

With other particles

quoin (2) : Men. 454, nisi adsint quom citentur; Truc. 234; quando: Merc. 406, si sequatur, quaudo ince- dat; dum: Bacch. 1194, si, dum vivas, tibi bene facias.

Dependent on indirect questions

With relatives

Amph. 1016, quis fuerit quem propter corpus stupri compleverit; Trin. 210, falson an vero laudent quem velint; Vid. 57; H. T. 1040.

With quom

Merc. 344, neque, quom roget, quid loquar eogi- tatumst.

With si

Rud. 925, ut piger, si velim, siem; Merc. 941.

Dependent on a 'stipulative' subjunctive

Amph. 225, convenit, victi utri sint, urbem uti dederent; Capt. 380; Rud. 1128, concredam; ac si nil sit, ut reddas; Poen. 855; And. 200; Epid. 500.

Dependent on a clause of proviso

Trin. 211, dum quod lubeat sciant; CIL, i, 196 (ter).

Dependent on a causal clause

Cist. 102, iratast quia non redi- «rim postquam resciverim.

Dependent on an imperative or future indicative

Amph. 439, ubi ego Sosia nolim esse, tu esto Sosia; Asin. 29, die, obsecro hercle, serio quod te rogem; CIL, xi, 4766, neque efferto quod louci siet; Pers. 16, dabunt di quae exoptes; Asin. 623, dabunt di quae velitis; €ato, Agr. 29, in segetem, ubi pabulum seras, invehito. In all these the main verb is equivalent to a volitive or optative subjunctive. Attraction to the subjunctive after an imperative is found in Umbrian also, e.g. pone esonome ferar, ere fertu poe . . ., ' when it is carried, let him carry it, who,' etc.

Miscellaneous

Asin. 122, moriri mavolet quam non reddat qnod promiserit; Men. 229, maior quasi terram videas (indefinite 2d singular), quae fuerit tua; Trin. 549, sicut fortunatorum memorant insulas, quo cuncti qui aetatem egerint caste suam conveniant. Here the clause governing the attracted clause is a clause in implied indirect discourse.

Conditions under which attraction takes place

Frank's study shows:

1. The attracted clause is preferably in the same time-sphere as the clause on which it depends.

2. Its favorite position is between the introductory conjunction (when such exists) and the verb of the governing clause.

3. Its verb rarely expresses precise modal and temporal force.

4. The clause as a whole is rather of the generalizing than of the determinative type.

5. It is more frequently a temporal than a relative clause.

6. It is connected with the predicate more frequently than with the subject or object of the sentence.

7. As a rule, it is an essential clause, and grammatically depends very closely upon the main body of the clause to which it is attracted.

These favoring conditions are met in only about 37 % of all the clauses dependent upon subjunctives. When these favoring conditions do not exist, the dependent clause stands in the indicative, unless the clause would regularly stand in the subjunctive for some other reason (purpose, result, etc.).

Subjunctive by attraction in clauses dependent on an infinitive

The infinitive, even outside of the limits of indirect discourse, has the power of causing the employment of the subjunctive in dependent clauses which would otherwise take the indicative. The name 'subjunctive by attraction' is given to this usage precisely as when a subjunctive is attracted to another subjunctive.

The origin of the usage is not easy to account for. Charles Edwin Bennett[3] is "strongly persuaded that Frank has discovered the truth," when he holds[4] that the ' attraction' of the mood after the infinitive began with those infinitives which were logically equivalent to subjunctives. Thus when Plautus, Amph. 705, says, certa res hanc est obiurigare quae me noluerit salutare, this is felt as equivalent to certa res est ut hanc obiurigem, etc., and the subjunctive noluerit is in consequence used after obiurigare, just as it would have been after obiurigem. So Bacch. 58, apud me te esse, quom veniat, volo, where te esse is felt as the equivalent of sis or ut sis. A very large number (70 %") of all the instances of 'subjunctive by attraction' after infinitives in Early Latin occur after infinitives of this type, viz. infinitives equivalent to subjunctives.

All known 61 instances follow:

With relatives

Asin. 24, video necesse esse eloqui quid- quid roges; Aul. 129; 751, si facere quod lubeat licet; Capt. 363, volt te operam dare quod is velit; Cas. 570, qui advocatos advocet, rogitare oportet; 872; M. G. 182, iube transire hue quantum possit; 982; Pers. 273; 601; Poen. 966, pati servire domi quae fuerint liberae; Pseud. 460, decet innocentem qui sit superbum esse; 1150; Rud. 112; 272; 321; 117; 394; Stich. 69; 686; Trin. 1105, iubeto quae imperaverim curare; Truc. 225; 228; Plaut. Frag. 80, agere oportet quod agas; And. 219, quicquid peperisset decreverunt tollere; 464, quod peperisset iussit tolli; H. T. 165, non convenit qui ad labor em pepulerim nunc me ipsum f ugere; Phor. 537; Hec. 244, ut te cogam quae imperem facere; 840; Cato, Agr. 135, 3; OIL, i, 196, 1, de Bacanalibus quei foideratei esent ita exdeicendum esse censuere; i, 5041, oppidum quod posedisent possidere iousit dum poplus Romanus vellet; Stat. 183.

With quom

Bacch. 58, apud me te esse, quom veniat, volo ; 76, quom adveniat, te volo me amplexari; Capt. 146, alienus quom tam aegre feras, quid me patrem par facere est ? Phor. 202, istaec quom ita sint, tanto magis te advigilare aequomst; 928; Scaurus (Meyer), p. 242, est iniquom, quom inter alios vixerim, apud alios me rationem vitae reddere.

With si, ni, etc

Amph. 69, sive qui ambissent palmam, sive quoi duint, sirempse legem iussit esse; 880; 986, qui minus liceat miuitari populo ni decedat mihi? Bacch. 1045; Cas. 440; Men. 848, votas parcere ni abscedat; M. G. 1356; Stich. 563; H. T. 626, mihi te edicere, si parerem, nolle tolli; Cato, Agr. 3, 5, esse oportet si contriti sint; 151, 4; Frag. (Jord.) p. 64, 4; CIL, i, 197, 10, iubeto eum, si pariat (= pareat) condemnari; 196, 24, si ques essent qui fecisent, eis rem caputalem faciendam censuere; 6, (exdei- cendum censuere) si ques esent qui deicerent.

With other particles

quam: Pseud. 439, qui gnatum suom esse probiorem quam ipsus fuerit postulet; Trin. 175; ubi: Cato, Agr. 2, 5, (oportet) ubi ea cognita sint, curare ut perficiantur; 155, 2; ut: Trin. 306, utrum esse mavelit ut animus censeat an ita ut cognati velint; CIL, i, 199, 4, ubi ea facta essent, Romam venire iusserunt.

Explanation

The main source of the construction is "quite probably" to be sought in the use of the infinitive as the equivalent of the subjunctive.[5] A contributory cause, recognized by Frank, is to be found in those cases where the attracting infinitive itself depends upon a subjunctive (9 instances).

Thus in Cist. 497, quodcumque optes tibi velim contingere, it is entirely natural that optes should be attracted by velim. Other similar passages are : Pers. 290, liceat quom servos sis, dicere; Poen. 681, videre vos vellem quom aurum darem; Hec. 532, ut puerum praeoptares perire ex quo fore amicitiam scires; Com. Incert. (Ribb. p. 137), artem ne pudeat proloqui quam factites; Cato, Agr. 1, 4, qui vendiderint eos pigeat vendidisse; 2,1, possitne, quae reliqua sint, conficere; Lucil. 145, 4, ut perisse velis quem visere nolueris. Under the same head I should bring CIL, xi, 4766, eod die quod reidinae causa fiat sine dolo cedere licetod, where the imperative is equivalent to a jussive subjunctive.

It will be noted that in most of the foregoing passages the attracting subjunctive is in close proximity — much closer than the infinitive — to the attracted subjunctive.

The preceding 70 examples include all but 16 of the cases of 'attraction' after the infinitive. The remainder, I believe, are to be accounted for as influenced by the two preceding types. Examples : Amph. 39, debetis velle quae velimus; Capt. 986, mos est oblivisci neque novisse quoius nihili sit faciunda gratia; Cas. 564, stultitia est ad forum procedere in eum diem quoi quod amet in mundo siet; Men. 1004, facinus indignum, erum deripier qui liber venerit; Trin. 357; Phor. 79; 960, quod auditura sit indicare pla- cabilius est; Hec. 73; 149, quam decrerim me non posse diutius habere eam ludibrio haberi neque honestum est; Ace. 193; 215; Ad. 341, quom amet aliam, non est utile hanc dari; H. T. 578, nostrumst intellegere utquomque opus sit; Phor. 502, quom occu- patus esset, hoc esse obiectum malum! Ad. 39, instituere parare quod sit carius. In the last two examples the infinitive is exclamatory, the only instances in Early Latin of the exclamatory infinitive with attracted subjunctive.

Frank in his discussion does not mention Ad. 39; while in the Phormio passage he suggests that the guom-clause may be an early instance of quom causal.

Of the historical infinitive with attracted subjunctive, no instance appears in Early Latin.

On the whole the subjunctive is less frequent than the indicative in dependence upon those infinitives with which the subjunctive is possible. For the instances in Early Latin, see Frank, p. 443 f. The subjunctive was never obligatory, and was used only where the subordinate clause was an integral part of the idea conveyed by the infinitive. Furthermore it is usually generalizing and unemphatic, rather than determinative and emphatic. If relative, it is usually attached to the object of the infinitive; see Frank, p. 444 f.

Some of the examples cited as illustrating our construction, Frank (1. c. p. 430) regards as specimens of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses of indirect discourse, e.g. passages like M. G. 182, iube trans- ire hue quantum possit. "While there seems to be no doubt of the close relationship of such a sentence as this to indirect discourse, yet it seems to me safer to regard this and similar examples as furnishing the starting-point of indirect discourse, rather than as influenced by it. See below under " Subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua."

References

  1. "Syntax of early Latin, By Charles Edwin Bennett" - 1910 http://books.google.com/books?id=XX8KAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  2. Amer. Jour. Phil, viii, p. 54, Hale -- cited in "Syntax of early Latin, By Charles Edwin Bennett" - 1910 http://books.google.com/books?id=XX8KAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  3. adapted from "Syntax of early Latin ... By Charles Edwin Bennett" - 1910 http://books.google.com/books?id=XX8KAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  4. (Amer. Jour. Phil, xxv, p. 428 ff.)
  5. adapted from "Syntax of early Latin ... By Charles Edwin Bennett" - 1910 http://books.google.com/books?id=XX8KAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Further reading

  • Tenney Frank, Attraction of Mood in Early Latin, Chicago, 1904
  • Frank, The Influence of the Infinitive upon Verbs Subordinated to it, Amer. Jour. Phil, xxv, p. 428 ff.; Thulin, De Coujunctivo Latino, Lund. 1899, pp. 1-76.
  • C. Thulin, De Conjunctive Latino, Lund, 1899, pp. 79-200
  • F. Antoine, L'Attraction modale en Latin, Melanges Boissier, p. 25 ff.
  • [1]
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Subjunctive by attraction, that was deleted or is being discussed for deletion, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Author(s): This, that and the other Search for "Subjunctive by attraction" on Google
View Wikipedia's deletion log of "Subjunctive by attraction"
Wikipedia-logo-v2

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.