consider earth to be a spherical body of mass M, radius R with centre O, Suppose a body of mass m placed on the surface of earth, where acceleration due to gravity is g. The gravitational force of the body of mass m, outside the surface of earth is due to earth whose mass M is concentrated at the centre O. Let F be the force of attraction between body and the earth. According to Newton's law of gravitation,

F =GMm/R2(where 2 is square of R)

From gravity pull, F= mg so, mg= GMm/R2 or g= GM/R2

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