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Harbingers of Zionism They philosophers which created the world of ideas and concepts of the philosophy of Zionist half the 19th century, and presented it to their writings, published as articles newspapers and books, perceptions and plans for national home for the Jewish people in Israel. According to some historians who have studied the phenomenon of 'precursors Zionism, the main ones were in 1860 - 1874, before preparations to rise first [B] Trm"b (1881), and the appearance of the Political Zionism (1896) and practical Zionism.

Definition and identity

Historians differ over the definition and identity of the "harbingers of Zionism." Some, extend, see forerunners, anyone whose ideas or proposals were attached to the fabric of the Zionist idea then, since the movement "Love of Zion" on. Whereas, reduce, argued that even if preceded by the movement "Lovers of Zion" thinkers and entrepreneurs, those routes that Zionism moving them afterwards, the title of "meat Zionism" fitting only the thinkers who influenced considerably by the public. Historians are divided on the question: Is "precursors of Zionism" as they were influenced by, the idea of ​​the National modern Taking off in Europe in Template:Th, or not. Half 20th century was the researcher Dov Wajnryb of the claim for the first time that research the history of Zionism, including dealing with who they are "forerunners" were heavily influenced views of law studies, mostly grades outlook. [[#ref_ Dov Wajnryb, foundations of Zionism and its history, 'hit' Tashaz 1947.|^]]

The "harbingers of Zionism" agreed upon by the Historians include:

In historiography Zionism mentioned for their contribution to the Zionist idea several thinkers and entrepreneurs more, Jews and non-Jews, as harbingers of Zionism, who appeared before it was a mass movement; Nahum Sokolow wrote on Moses Montefiore, Adolphe Cremieux, Eliezer Ben Yehuda, a Shelah[disambiguation needed], Manasseh Ben Israel and false messiah Shabtai Tzvi exploits shook the Jewish the seventh decade of the 17th century and since coined in collective national memory. Adolf Boehm proposed in his book Mordecai Emanuel Noah, with a "Ararat", which follow In the first half of the 19th century, and Peretz Smolenskin who died on 1885, and of non - Jews identified heralders "selection of thinkers and entrepreneurs, such as George Eliot and Laurence Oliphant.

Historiography of the forerunners

Historiography dealing Mevasseret Zion and Working wide and varied. The authors of the history of Zionism and its precursors markers include: thinker and activist Nahum Sokolow. ^ According to the historian Jacob Katz, Sokolov called "precursor of Zionism", "the one of previous generations of Soviet and non-Soviet members, who had some thought of the philosophical direction the Zionist movement. "[[#ref_ Jacob Katz, clarifying the term" precursors of Zionism ", 'Nationalism Jewish', p 263.|^]] This broad definition led him to include in his list, individuals working for old town and new for 19th century,

  • Adolf Boehm, author and historian, a German Jew, ^ Book was first, according to Katz, the distinction between Zionism and precursors, and the variety of movements and ideas, Zionism "allow them the knowledge of the historical relationship between Israel and the Land - Israel." [[#ref_ Jacob Katz, to clarify the concept of "precursors of Zionism", 'Nationalism Jew', p 263.|^]] their common} is the "Land of Israel" (original term in German: "Palestinismus"), that is closely linked to spiritual, mental and physical with Israel. Boehm recognized forerunner of Zionism ", Jews and non-Jews, all those who preached the return of Jews to Israel, due to the motives and reasons.
  • Historian Professor Jacob Katz, claimed precursors are only those created significant social impact in the Zionist movement, the affected position Israeli historiography, but also aroused opposition. While, historian Prof. Shmuel Ettinger was one of the dilators, which included thinkers and entrepreneurs are among the "herald" or precede the Zionist movement ideas return and will be uploaded to a unified and updated, and if not this term, Ettinger also mentioned that "most loyal advocates of the return of the Jews to their historic homeland previously were actually members of different Christian denominations, reminiscent of the writings in the 17th and 18th centuries such programs. In the 19th century it also added the political factor - some statesmen in England and on the Continent (Mainland) European political thought Arrangement rehabilitation East after the death of the 'sick man', that is, after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, preferably formed of a Jewish state - Israel, serving partition between Turkey and Egypt "." [[#ref_ Shmuel Ettinger, 'History of Israel, C: History of Modern Israel, Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1969, pp. 180 -179.|^]]

Worldview changes heralding

Jacob Katz argued that the rabbis Alkalay and Kalisher changed the religious worldview, Bzonhm the "wrong elements - realistic perception of traditional Christianity"; He believed that Zionism precursors operating period "was not on the agenda the problem of the lack of rights for Jews or societal discrimination", [[#ref_ Yaakov Katz, the Jewish National Movement: A Sociological Analysis, in: Reuven Kahane and joy Kuperstein ( editors), 'problems of identity and legitimacy touch off Israeli society Reader, Jerusalem: Press Academon, Ts"m 1980, pp. 18-32. |^]] and so the idea of ​​modern Jewish nationalism was not a success in which they operated. From the late 70s of the 19th century, following the increasing economic distress of the Jews of Eastern Europe Gal anti-Semitism Goa, left two million and a half Jews (to World War I), the Eastern Europe, only a small percentage of increased to Israel.

Further reading

  • Shlomo Avineri, 'Zionist idea diverse', (Ed.: Malkin lovers), Tel Aviv, Am Oved, 1980.
  • Judea and go, 'Atlas Carta History of Israel, from the beginning of the settlement and the establishment of Israel, Jerusalem: Publishing Carta, 1974, p 20.
  • Ben-Zion Dinaburg - Dinur, Samuel Yavnieli (eds.), Zionism precursors: formation of the Zionist movement and its factories initial discoveries and Vastlslotm history from the failure of the Sabbatean movement until the beginning " his daughter, Zion "(sources and documents with introductions, notes and annotations), in: 'Book of Zionism, a - b, Tel Aviv: Bialik by Dvir, Tartzat - Ts"d - 1939 - [[:Category:{{{1}}}|{{{1}}}]] in 1944.
  • Jacob Katz, to clarify the concept of "precursors of Zionism", 'Jewish' nationalism, Jerusalem: Zionist Library at the Zionist Organization, 1983, pp. 263 - 284.
  • Estee Berholz, the forerunners of Zionism - a revolution in succession tradition, 'dewy Orot the Act of 2004, 237-253.
  • Joseph Goldstein, 'between Zion Zionism Zionist History 1914-1881, Tel Aviv: Open University, 1995, Unit 2, Chapter 2.

External links

  • [Http:// precursors Score], 'Home for Jewish Culture, 254, Kislev PAGES, Department of Culture Torah in Ministry of Education
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