Noetic Psychology is a specific theme in psychology dedicated to the discovery of meaning and purpose; resolution of existential angst; the integration of affect (emotion) with cognition (thinking i.e. intelligence) through forming meaning. Values are a key component of Noetic Psychology. Noetics began with the work of Viktor Frankl in the early 1950s with the Noetic Psychology movement being started by Dr. Leigh Kibby in the late 1990s. In Noetic Psychology, the term noetic is similar to the Greek usage of Noos meaning spirit and/or spirituality. Noetic Psychology includes specific skills such as those described as Neuro-Empathic Programming. Robert C. Leslie with his publication of "Jesus and Logotherapy" (?Abingdon) also made contributions in this area. Leslie's book was based on his year of study with Frankl in Vienna while on a sabbatical leave from Pacific School of Religion. Leslie recounts that the noetic to Frankl was the spiritual but that which is not religiously based.