Muhammad Ali (//; born Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr.; January 17, 1942) is an American former professional boxer, generally considered among the greatest heavyweights in the history of the sport. A controversial and polarizing figure during his early career, Ali is now highly regarded for the skills he displayed in the ring plus the values he exemplified outside of it: religious freedom, racial justice and the triumph of principle over expedience. He is one of the most recognized sports figures of the past 100 years, crowned "Sportsman of the Century" by Sports Illustrated and "Sports Personality of the Century" by the BBC.
Ali, originally known as Cassius Clay, began training at 12 years old and at the age of 22 won the world heavyweight championship in 1964 from Sonny Liston in a stunning upset. Shortly after that bout, Ali joined the Nation of Islam and changed his name. He converted to Sunni Islam in 1975, and 30 years later began adhering to Sufism.
In 1967, three years after winning the heavyweight title, Ali refused to be conscripted into the U.S. military, citing his religious beliefs and opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War. He was eventually arrested and found guilty on draft evasion charges and stripped of his boxing title. He did not fight again for nearly four years—losing a time of peak performance in an athlete's career. Ali's appeal worked its way up to the U.S. Supreme Court, where in 1971 his conviction was overturned. Ali's actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation.
Ali remains the only three-time lineal world heavyweight champion; he won the title in 1964, 1974, and 1978. Between February 25, 1964 and September 19, 1964 Muhammad Ali reigned as the undisputed heavyweight boxing champion.
Nicknamed "The Greatest", Ali was involved in several historic boxing matches. Notable among these were the first Liston fight, three with rival Joe Frazier, and one with George Foreman, where he regained titles he had been stripped of seven years earlier.
At a time when most fighters let their managers do the talking, Ali, inspired by professional wrestler "Gorgeous" George Wagner, thrived in—and indeed craved—the spotlight, where he was often provocative and outlandish. He controlled most press conferences and interviews, and spoke freely about issues unrelated to boxing. Ali transformed the role and image of the African American athlete in America by his embrace of racial pride and his willingness to antagonize the white establishment in doing so. In the words of writer Joyce Carol Oates, he was one of the few athletes in any sport to "define the terms of his public reputation".
Early life and amateur career
Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born on January 17, 1942, in Louisville, Kentucky. The older of two boys, he was named for his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr., who himself was named in honour of the 19th century abolitionist and politician of the same name. He had a sister and four brothers, including Nathaniel Clay. Clay's paternal grandparents were John Clay and Sallie Anne Clay; Clay's sister Eva quoted that Sallie was a native of Madagascar. His father painted billboards and signs, and his mother, Odessa O'Grady Clay, was a household domestic. Although Cassius Sr. was a Methodist, he allowed Odessa to bring up both Cassius and his younger brother Rudolph "Rudy" Clay (later renamed Rahman Ali) as Baptists. He is a descendant of pre-Civil War era American slaves in the American South, and is predominantly of African-American descent, with Irish and English.
He was first directed toward boxing by Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. Martin, who encountered the 12-year-old fuming over a thief taking his bicycle. He told the officer he was going to "whup" the thief. The officer told him he better learn how to box first. For the last four years of Clay's amateur career he was trained by boxing cutman Chuck Bodak.
Clay won six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union National Title, and the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Clay's amateur record was 100 wins with five losses. Ali claimed in his 1975 autobiography that shortly after his return from the Rome Olympics he threw his gold medal into the Ohio River after he and a friend were refused service at a "whites-only" restaurant and fought with a white gang. The story has since been disputed and several of Ali's friends, including Bundini Brown and photographer Howard Bingham, have denied it. Brown told Sports Illustrated writer Mark Kram, "Honkies sure bought into that one!" Thomas Hauser's biography of Ali stated that Ali was refused service at the diner but that he lost his medal a year after he won it. Ali received a replacement medal at a basketball intermission during the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, where he lit the torch to start the games.
Clay made his professional debut on October 29, 1960, winning a six-round decision over Tunney Hunsaker. From then until the end of 1963, Clay amassed a record of 19–0 with 15 wins by knockout. He defeated boxers including Tony Esperti, Jim Robinson, Donnie Fleeman, Alonzo Johnson, George Logan, Willi Besmanoff, Lamar Clark, Doug Jones and Henry Cooper. Clay also beat his former trainer and veteran boxer Archie Moore in a 1962 match.
These early fights were not without trials. Clay was knocked down both by Sonny Banks and Cooper. In the Cooper fight, Clay was floored by a left hook at the end of round four and was saved by the bell. The fight with Doug Jones on March 13, 1963, was Clay's toughest fight during this stretch. The number-two and -three heavyweight contenders respectively, Clay and Jones fought on Jones' home turf at New York's Madison Square Garden. Jones staggered Clay the first round, and the unanimous decision for Clay was greeted by boos and a rain of debris thrown onto the ring (watching on closed-circuit TV, heavyweight champ Sonny Liston quipped that if he fought Clay he might get locked up for murder). The fight was later named "Fight of the Year".
In each of these fights, Clay vocally belittled his opponents and vaunted his abilities. Jones was "an ugly little man" and Cooper was a "bum". He was embarrassed to get in the ring with Alex Miteff. Madison Square Garden was "too small for me". This behavior made him controversial and disliked by most writers, many former champions and much of the general public.
After Clay left Moore's camp in 1960, partially due to Clay's refusing to do chores such as dish-washing and sweeping, he hired Angelo Dundee, whom he had met in February 1957 during Ali's amateur career, to be his trainer. Around this time, Clay sought longtime idol Sugar Ray Robinson to be his manager, but was rebuffed.
By late 1963, Clay had become the top contender for Sonny Liston's title. The fight was set for February 25, 1964, in Miami. Liston was an intimidating personality, a dominating fighter with a criminal past and ties to the mob. Based on Clay's uninspired performance against Jones and Cooper in his previous two fights, and Liston's destruction of former heavyweight champion Floyd Patterson in two first-round knock outs, Clay was a 7–1 underdog. Despite this, Clay taunted Liston during the pre-fight buildup, dubbing him "the big ugly bear". "Liston even smells like a bear," Clay said. "After I beat him I'm going to donate him to the zoo." He declared that he would "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee", and, summarizing his strategy for avoiding Liston's assaults, said, "Your hands can't hit what your eyes can't see."[cite this quote] Clay turned the prefight weigh-in into a circus, shouting at Liston that "someone is going to die at ringside tonight". Clay's pulse rate was measured at 120, more than double his normal 54. Many of those in attendance thought Clay's behavior stemmed from fear, and some commentators wondered if he would show up for the bout.
The outcome of the fight was a major upset. At the opening bell, Liston rushed at Clay, seemingly angry and looking for a quick knockout. But Clay's superior speed and mobility enabled him to elude Liston, making the champion miss and look awkward. At the end of the first round Clay opened up his attack and hit Liston repeatedly with jabs. Liston fought better in round two, but at the beginning of the third round Clay hit Liston with a combination that buckled his knees and opened a cut under his left eye. This was the first time Liston had ever been cut. At the end of round four, as Clay returned to his corner, he began experiencing blinding pain in his eyes and asked his trainer Angelo Dundee to cut off his gloves. Dundee refused. It has been speculated that the problem was due to ointment used to seal Liston's cuts, perhaps deliberately applied by his corner to his gloves. (Though unconfirmed, Bert Sugar claimed that two of Liston's opponents also complained about their eyes "burning".)
Despite Liston's attempts to knock out a blinded Clay, Clay was able to survive the fifth round until sweat and tears rinsed the irritation from his eyes. In the sixth, Clay dominated, hitting Liston repeatedly. Liston did not answer the bell for the seventh round, and Clay was declared the winner by TKO. Liston stated that the reason he quit was an injured shoulder. Following the win, a triumphant Clay rushed to the edge of the ring and, pointing to the ringside press, shouted: "Eat your words!" Then, during an interview in the ring, he shouted, "I shook up the world!" "I talk to God every day." "I must be the greatest!"[cite this quote]
In winning this fight, Clay became at age 22 the youngest boxer to take the title from a reigning heavyweight champion, though Floyd Patterson was the youngest to win the heavyweight championship at 21, during an elimination bout following Rocky Marciano's retirement. Mike Tyson broke both records in 1986 when he defeated Trevor Berbick to win the heavyweight title at age 20.
Clay, having changed his name to Muhammad Ali following his conversion to Islam and affiliation with the Nation of Islam, met Liston for a rematch in May 1965 in Lewiston, Maine. It had been scheduled for Boston the previous November, but was postponed for six months due to Ali's emergency surgery for a hernia three days before. The fight was controversial. Midway through the first round, Liston was knocked down by a difficult-to-see blow the press dubbed a "phantom punch". Ali refused to retreat to a neutral corner, and referee Jersey Joe Walcott did not begin the count. Liston rose after he had been down about 20 seconds, and the fight momentarily continued. But a few seconds later Walcott stopped the match, declaring Ali the winner by knockout. The entire fight lasted less than two minutes.
It has since been speculated that Liston dropped to the ground purposely. Proposed motivations include threats on his life from the Nation of Islam, that he had bet against himself and that he "took a dive" to pay off debts. Slow-motion replays show that Liston was jarred by a chopping right from Ali, although it is unclear whether the blow was a genuine knock-out punch.
Ali's second title defense was against Floyd Patterson, a former heavyweight champion who had lost twice to Liston in first-round knockouts. Patterson had made what Ali considered denigrating remarks about his religion; Ali dubbed Patterson a "white man's champion" and taunted him with the name "Rabbit". At times during the fight, Ali appeared to toy with Patterson, refusing, for example, to throw a single punch in the first round and easily avoiding Patterson's lunging "kangaroo punch". Some felt Ali deliberately prolonged the fight to inflict maximum punishment. Ali won a 12-round technical knockout. Patterson later said that he strained his sacroiliac, a statement supported by video of the fight. Ali's clowning and taunting of Patterson was criticized by many in the sports media.
Ali and then-WBA heavyweight champion boxer Ernie Terrell had agreed to meet for a bout in Chicago on March 29, 1966 (the WBA, one of two boxing associations, had stripped Ali of his title following his joining the Nation of Islam). But in February Ali was reclassified by the Louisville draft board as 1-A from 1-Y, and he indicated that he would refuse to serve, commenting to the press, "I ain't got nothing against no Viet Cong; no Viet Cong never called me nigger." Amidst the media and public outcry over Ali's stance, the Illinois Athletic Commission refused to sanction the fight, citing technicalities .
Ali returned to the United States to fight Cleveland Williams in the Houston Astrodome on November 14, 1966. According to Sports Illustrated, the bout drew a then-indoor world record crowd of 35,460 people. Williams had once been considered among the hardest punchers in the heavyweight division, but in 1964 he had been shot at point-blank range by a Texas policeman, resulting in the loss of one kidney and 10 feet (3.0 m) of his small intestine. Ali dominated Williams, winning a third-round technical knockout in what some consider the finest performance of his career.
Ali fought Terrell in Houston on February 6, 1967. Terrell was billed as Ali's toughest opponent since Liston—unbeaten in five years and having defeated many of the boxers Ali had faced. Terrell was big, strong and had a three-inch reach advantage over Ali. During the lead up to the bout, Terrell repeatedly called Ali "Clay", much to Ali's annoyance (Ali called Cassius Clay his "slave name"). The two almost came to blows over the name issue in a pre-fight interview with Howard Cosell. Ali seemed intent on humiliating Terrell. "I want to torture him," he said. "A clean knockout is too good for him." The fight was close until the seventh round when Ali bloodied Terrell and almost knocked him out. In the eighth round, Ali taunted Terrell, hitting him with jabs and shouting between punches, "What's my name, Uncle Tom... what's my name?" Ali won a unanimous 15-round decision. Terrell claimed that early in the fight Ali deliberately thumbed him in the eye — forcing Terrell to fight half-blind — and then, in a clinch, rubbed the wounded eye against the ropes. Because of Ali's apparent intent to prolong the fight to inflict maximum punishment, critics described the bout as "one of the ugliest boxing fights". Tex Maule later wrote: "It was a wonderful demonstration of boxing skill and a barbarous display of cruelty." Ali denied the accusations of cruelty but, for Ali's critics, the fight provided more evidence of his arrogance.
After Ali's title defense against Zora Folley on March 22, he was stripped of his title due to his refusal to be drafted to army service. His boxing license was also suspended by the state of New York. He was convicted of draft evasion on June 20 and sentenced to five years in prison and a $10,000 fine. He paid a bond and remained free while the verdict was being appealed.
Exile and comeback
Ali refused to be inducted into the armed forces, stating publicly, "no Vietcong ever called me nigger". He was systematically denied a boxing license in every state and stripped of his passport. As a result, he did not fight from March 1967 to October 1970—from ages 25 to almost 29—as his case worked its way through the appeal process. In 1971, the US Supreme Court overturned his conviction in a unanimous 8-0 ruling (Thurgood Marshall abstained from the case).
During this time of inactivity, as opposition to the Vietnam War began to grow and Ali's stance gained sympathy, he spoke at colleges across the nation, criticizing the Vietnam War and advocating African American pride and racial justice.
On August 12, 1970, with his case still in appeal, Ali was granted a license to box by the City of Atlanta Athletic Commission, thanks to State Senator Leroy R. Johnson. Ali's first return bout was against Jerry Quarry on October 26, resulting in a win after three rounds after Quarry was cut.
A month earlier, a victory in federal court forced the New York State Boxing Commission to reinstate Ali's license. He fought Oscar Bonavena at Madison Square Garden in December, an uninspired performance that ended in a dramatic TKO of Bonavena in the 15th round. The win left Ali as a top contender against heavyweight champion Joe Frazier.
Ali and Frazier's first fight, held at the Garden on March 8, 1971, was nicknamed the "Fight of the Century", due to the tremendous excitement surrounding a bout between two undefeated fighters, each with a legitimate claim as heavyweight champions. Veteran boxing writer John Condon called it "the greatest event I've ever worked on in my life". The bout was broadcast to 35 foreign countries; promoters granted 760 press passes.
Adding to the atmosphere were the considerable pre-fight theatrics and name calling. Ali portrayed Frazier as a "dumb tool of the white establishment". "Frazier is too ugly to be champ," Ali said. "Frazier is too dumb to be champ." Ali also frequently called Frazier an Uncle Tom. Dave Wolf, who worked in Frazier's camp, recalled that, "Ali was saying 'the only people rooting for Joe Frazier are white people in suits, Alabama sheriffs, and members of the Ku Klux Klan. I'm fighting for the little man in the ghetto.' Joe was sitting there, smashing his fist into the palm of his hand, saying, 'What the fuck does he know about the ghetto?'"
Ali began training at a farm near Reading, Pennsylvania in 1971 and finding the country setting to his liking, Muhammad Ali then sought to develop a real training camp in the countryside. Twenty minutes from Reading, (one hour from Philadelphia and a two-hour drive from New York City), Ali found a five-acre site on a Pennsylvania country road in the village of Deer Lake. (On a map, the location can more easily be found by looking for "Orwigsburg".) On this site, Ali carved out what was to become his training camp, the camp where he lived and trained for all the many fights he had from 1972 on to the end of his career in the 1980s. The camp still stands today and is a bed and breakfast.
The Monday night fight lived up to its billing. In a preview of their two other fights, a crouching, bobbing and weaving Frazier constantly pressured Ali, getting hit regularly by Ali jabs and combinations, but relentlessly attacking and scoring repeatedly, especially to Ali's body. The fight was even in the early rounds, but Ali was taking more punishment than ever in his career. On several occasions in the early rounds he played to the crowd and shook his head "no" after he was hit. In the later rounds—in what was the first appearance of the "rope-a-dope strategy"—Ali leaned against the ropes and absorbed punishment from Frazier, hoping to tire him. In the 11th round, Frazier connected with a left hook that wobbled Ali, but because it appeared that Ali might be clowning as he staggered backwards across the ring, Frazier hesitated to press his advantage, fearing an Ali counter-attack. In the final round, Frazier knocked Ali down with a vicious left hook, which referee Arthur Mercante said was as hard as a man can be hit. Ali was back on his feet in three seconds Nevertheless, Ali lost by unanimous decision, his first professional defeat.
Ali's characterizations of Frazier during the lead-up to the fight cemented a personal animosity toward Ali by Frazier that lasted until Frazier's death. Frazier and his camp always considered Ali's words cruel and unfair, far beyond what was necessary to sell tickets. Shortly after the bout, in the studios of ABC's Wide World of Sports during a nationally televised interview with the two boxers, Frazier rose from his chair and wrestled Ali to the floor after Ali called him ignorant.
After the loss, Ali fought Quarry, a second bout with Floyd Patterson and Bob Foster in 1972, winning a total of six fights that year. In 1973, Ali suffered the second loss of his career at the hands of Ken Norton, who broke Ali's jaw during the fight. After initially seeking retirement, Ali won a controversial decision against Norton in their second bout, leading to a rematch at Madison Square Garden on January 28, 1974, with Joe Frazier—who had recently lost his title to George Foreman.
Ali was strong in the early rounds of the fight, and staggered Frazier in the second round (referee Tony Perez mistakenly thought he heard the bell ending the round and stepped between the two fighters as Ali was pressing his attack, giving Frazier time to recover). However, Frazier came on in the middle rounds, snapping Ali's head in round seven and driving him to the ropes at the end of round eight. The last four rounds saw round-to-round shifts in momentum between the two fighters. Throughout most of the bout, however, Ali was able to circle away from Frazier's dangerous left hook and to tie Frazier up when he was cornered—the latter a tactic that Frazier's camp complained of bitterly. Judges awarded Ali a unanimous decision.
Heavyweight champion (second tenure)
The defeat of Frazier set the stage for a title fight against heavyweight champion George Foreman in Kinshasa, Zaire, on October 30, 1974—a bout nicknamed "The Rumble in the Jungle". Foreman was considered one of the hardest punchers in heavyweight history. In assessing the fight, analysts pointed out that Joe Frazier and Ken Norton—who had given Ali four tough battles and won two of them—had been both devastated by Foreman in second round knockouts. Ali was 32 years old, and had clearly lost speed and reflexes since his twenties. Contrary to his later persona, Foreman was at the time a brooding and intimidating presence. Almost no one associated with the sport, not even Ali's long-time supporter Howard Cosell, gave the former champion a chance of winning.
As usual, Ali was confident and colorful before the fight. He told interviewer David Frost, "If you think the world was surprised when Nixon resigned, wait 'til I whup Foreman's behind!" He told the press, "I've done something new for this fight. I done wrestled with an alligator, I done tussled with a whale; handcuffed lightning, thrown thunder in jail; only last week, I murdered a rock, injured a stone, hospitalized a brick; I'm so mean I make medicine sick." Ali was wildly popular in Zaire, with crowds chanting "Ali, bomaye" ("Ali, kill him") wherever he went.
Ali opened the fight moving and scoring with right crosses to Foreman's head. Then, beginning in the second round—and to the consternation of his corner—Ali retreated to the ropes and invited Foreman to hit him while covering up, clinching and counter-punching—all while verbally taunting Foreman. ("Is that all you got, George? They told me you could hit.") The move, which would later become known as the "Rope-A-Dope", so violated conventional boxing wisdom—letting one of the hardest hitters in boxing strike at will—that at ringside writer George Plimpton thought the fight had to be fixed. Foreman, increasingly angered, threw punches that were deflected and did not land squarely. Midway through the fight, as Foreman began tiring, Ali countered more frequently and effectively with punches and flurries, which electrified the pro-Ali crowd. In the eighth round, Ali dropped an exhausted Foreman with a combination at center ring; Foreman failed to make the count. Against the odds, and amidst pandemonium in the ring, Ali had regained the title by knockout.
In reflecting on the fight, George Foreman later said: "I'll admit it. Muhammad outthought me and outfought me."
Ali's next opponents included Chuck Wepner, Ron Lyle, and Joe Bugner. Wepner, a journeyman known as "The Bayonne Bleeder", stunned Ali with a knockdown in the ninth round; Ali would later say he tripped on Wepner's foot. It was a bout that would inspire Sylvester Stallone to create the acclaimed film, Rocky.
Ali then agreed to a third match with Joe Frazier in Manila. The bout, known as the "Thrilla in Manila", was held on October 1, 1975 in temperatures approaching 100 °F (38 °C). In the first rounds, Ali was aggressive, moving and exchanging blows with Frazier. However, Ali soon appeared to tire and adopted the "rope-a-dope" strategy, frequently resorting to clinches. During this part of the bout Ali did some effective counter-punching, but for the most part absorbed punishment from a relentlessly attacking Frazier. In the 12th round, Frazier began to tire, and Ali scored several sharp blows that closed Frazier's left eye and opened a cut over his right eye. With Frazier's vision now diminished, Ali dominated the 13th and 14th rounds, at times conducting what boxing historian Mike Silver called "target practice" on Frazier's head. The fight was stopped when Frazier's trainer, Eddie Futch, refused to allow Frazier to answer the bell for the 15th and final round, despite Frazier's protests. Frazier's eyes were both swollen shut. Ali, in his corner, winner by TKO, slumped on his stool, clearly spent.
An ailing Ali said afterwards that the fight "was the closest thing to dying that I know", and, when later asked if he had viewed the fight on videotape, reportedly said, "Why would I want to go back and see Hell?" After the fight he cited Frazier as "the greatest fighter of all times next to me".
Following the Manila bout, Ali fought Jean-Pierre Coopman, Jimmy Young, and Richard Dunn, winning the last by knockout. Later in 1976, Ali participated in an exhibition bout in Tokyo against Japanese professional wrestler and martial artist Antonio Inoki (Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki). Though the fight was a publicity stunt, Ali suffered leg bruises, two blood clots and an infection in his legs due to Inoki's kicks. The fight was ultimately declared a draw. Ali fought Ken Norton for the third time at Yankee Stadium in September 1976, where Ali won by a heavily contested decision, which was loudly booed by the audience. Ali reacted to the fallout of this by announcing a brief retirement to practice his faith in Islam, having converted to Sunni Islam after falling out with the Nation of Islam the previous year.
After winning against Alfredo Evangelista in May 1977, Ali struggled in his next fight against Earnie Shavers that September, who pummeled Ali a few times with punches to the head. Ali won the fight by another unanimous decision, but the bout caused Ali's longtime doctor Ferdie Pacheco to quit after he was rebuffed for telling Ali he should retire. Pacheco was quoted as saying, "the New York State Athletic Commission gave me a report that showed Ali's kidneys were falling apart. I wrote to Angelo Dundee, Ali's trainer, his wife and Ali himself. I got nothing back in response. That's when I decided enough is enough."
In February 1978, Ali faced Leon Spinks at the Hilton Hotel in Las Vegas. At the time, Spinks had only seven professional fights to his credit, and had recently fought a draw with journeyman Scott LeDoux. Ali sparred less than two dozen rounds in preparation for the fight, and was seriously out of shape by the opening bell. He lost the title by split decision. A rematch followed shortly thereafter in New Orleans, which broke attendance records. Ali won a unanimous decision in an uninspiring fight, making him the first heavyweight champion to win the belt three times.
Following this win, on July 27, 1979, Ali announced his retirement from boxing. His retirement was short-lived, however; Ali announced his comeback to face Larry Holmes for the WBC belt in an attempt to win the heavyweight championship an unprecedented fourth time. The fight was largely motivated by Ali's need for money. Boxing writer Richie Giachetti said, "Larry didn't want to fight Ali. He knew Ali had nothing left; he knew it would be a horror."
It was around this time that Ali started struggling with vocal stutters and trembling hands. The Nevada Athletic Commission (NAC) ordered that he undergo a complete physical in Las Vegas before being allowed to fight again. Ali chose instead to check into the Mayo Clinic, who declared him fit to fight. Their opinion was accepted by the NAC on July 31, 1980, paving the way for Ali's return to the ring.
The fight took place on October 2, 1980, in Las Vegas, with Holmes easily dominating Ali, who was weakened from thyroid medication he had taken to lose weight. Giachetti called the fight "awful... the worst sports event I ever had to cover". Actor Sylvester Stallone at ringside said it was like watching an autopsy on a man who is still alive. Ali's trainer Angelo Dundee finally stopped the fight in the eleventh round, the only fight Ali lost by knockout. The Holmes fight is said to have contributed to Ali's Parkinson's syndrome. Despite pleas to definitively retire, Ali fought one last time on December 11, 1981 in Nassau against Trevor Berbick, losing a ten-round decision.
Ali was diagnosed with Parkinson's syndrome in 1984, a disease that commonly results from head trauma from activities such as boxing. Ali still remained active during this time, however, later participating as a guest referee in the inaugural WrestleMania event.
Around 1987, the California Bicentennial Foundation for the U.S. Constitution selected Ali to personify the vitality of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. Ali rode on a float at the following year's Tournament of Roses Parade, launching the U.S. Constitution's 200th birthday commemoration. He published an oral history, Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times by Thomas Hauser, in 1991. That same year Ali traveled to Iraq during the Gulf War and met with Saddam Hussein in an attempt to negotiate the release of American hostages. In 1996, he had the honor of lighting the flame at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. Ali's bout with Parkinson's led to a gradual decline in Ali's health though he was still active into the early years of the millennium, even promoting his own biopic, Ali, in 2001. Ali also contributed an on-camera segment to the America: A Tribute to Heroes benefit concert. On November 17, 2002, Muhammad Ali went to Afghanistan as the "U.N. Messenger of Peace". He was in Kabul for a three-day goodwill mission as a special guest of the UN.
On September 1, 2009, Ali visited Ennis, County Clare, Ireland, the home of his great-grandfather, Abe Grady, who emigrated to the U.S. in the 1860s, eventually settling in Kentucky. A crowd of 10,000 turned out for a civic reception, where Ali was made the first Honorary Freeman of Ennis.
On July 27, 2012, Ali was a titular bearer of the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. He was helped to his feet by his wife Lonnie to stand before the flag due to his Parkinson's rendering him unable to carry it into the stadium.
On February 3, 2013, in a Washington Times article, Ali's brother, Rahman Ali, said Muhammad can no longer speak and could be dead within days. Ali's daughter, May May Ali, responded to rumors of her father being near death, stating that she had talked to him on the phone the morning of February 3 and he was fine. On December 20, 2014, Ali was hospitalized for a mild case of pneumonia. Ali was once again hospitalized on January 15, 2015 for a urinary tract infection after being found unresponsive at a guest house in Scottsdale, Arizona. He was released the next day.
Marriages and children
Ali has been married four times and has seven daughters and two sons. Ali met his first wife, cocktail waitress Sonji Roi, approximately one month before they married on August 14, 1964. Roi's objections to certain Muslim customs in regard to dress for women contributed to the breakup of their marriage. They divorced on January 10, 1966.
On August 17, 1967, Ali married Belinda Boyd. After the wedding, she, like Ali, converted to Islam. She changed her name to Khalilah Ali, though she was still called Belinda by old friends and family. They had four children: Maryum (born 1968), twins Jamillah and Rasheda (born 1970), and Muhammad Ali, Jr. (born 1972). Maryum has a career as an author and rapper.
In 1975, Ali began an affair with Veronica Porsche, an actress and model. By the summer of 1977, Ali's second marriage was over and he had married Veronica. At the time of their marriage, they had a baby girl, Hana, and Veronica was pregnant with their second child. Their second daughter, Laila Ali, was born in December 1977. By 1986, Ali and Veronica were divorced.
Laila later became a boxer in 1999, despite her father's earlier comments against female boxing in 1978: "Women are not made to be hit in the breast, and face like that... the body's not made to be punched right here [patting his chest]. Get hit in the breast... hard... and all that." As of 2014, Laila is undefeated in the super middleweight category, with 24 wins, no losses, and no draws.
On November 19, 1986, Ali married Yolanda ("Lonnie") Williams. They had been friends since 1964 in Louisville. They have one son, Asaad Amin, whom they adopted when Amin was five months old.
Ali currently lives in Scottsdale, Arizona, with Lonnie. In January 2007 it was reported that they had put their home in Berrien Springs, Michigan, up for sale and had purchased a home in eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky, for $1,875,000. Lonnie converted to Islam from Catholicism in her late twenties.
Affiliation with Nation of Islam
Ali said that he first heard of the Nation of Islam (NOI) when he was fighting in the Golden Gloves tournament in Chicago in 1959, and attended his first NOI meeting in 1961. He continued to attend meetings, although keeping his involvement hidden from the public. In 1962, Clay met Malcolm X, who soon became his spiritual and political mentor, and by the time of the first Liston fight NOI members, including Malcolm X, were visible in his entourage. This led to a story in The Miami Herald just before fight disclosing that Clay had joined the Nation, which nearly caused the bout to be canceled.
In fact, Clay was initially refused entry to the Nation of Islam (often called the Black Muslims at the time) due to his boxing career. However, after he won the championship from Liston in 1964, the Nation of Islam was more receptive and agreed to recruit him as a member. Shortly afterwards, Elijah Muhammad recorded a statement that Clay would be renamed Muhammad (one who is worthy of praise) Ali (fourth rightly guided caliph).
Only a few journalists (most notably Howard Cosell) accepted the new name at that time. Ali later announced: "Cassius Clay is my slave name." Ali's friendship with Malcolm X ended as Malcolm split with the NOI a couple of weeks after Ali joined, and Ali remained with the Nation. Ali later said that turning his back on Malcolm was one of the mistakes he regretted most in his life.
Aligning himself with the Nation of Islam, its leader Elijah Muhammad, and a narrative that labeled the white race as the perpetrator of genocide against African Americans made Ali a target of public condemnation. The NOI was widely viewed by whites and even some African Americans as a black separatist "hate religion" with a propensity toward violence; Ali had few qualms about using his influential voice to speak NOI doctrine. For example, in a press conference articulating his opposition to the Vietnam War, Ali stated, "my enemy is the white people, not the Vietcong". In relation to integration, he said: "We who follow the teachings of Elijah Muhammad don't want to be forced to integrate. Integration is wrong. We don't want to live with the white man; that's all." And in relation to inter-racial marriage: "No intelligent black man or black woman in his or her right black mind wants white boys and white girls coming to their homes to marry their black sons and daughters." Indeed, Ali's religious beliefs at the time included the notion that the white man was "the devil" and that white people were not "righteous".
Writer Jerry Izenberg once noted that, "the Nation became Ali's family and Elijah Muhammad became his father. But there is an irony to the fact that while the Nation branded white people as devils, Ali had more white colleagues than most African American people did at that time in America, and continued to have them throughout his career."
Conversion to Sunni Islam
Ali converted from the Nation of Islam sect to mainstream Sunni Islam in 1975. In a 2004 autobiography, written with daughter Hana Yasmeen Ali, Muhammad Ali attributes his conversion to the shift toward Islam made by Warith Deen Muhammad after he gained control of the Nation of Islam upon the death of Elijah Muhammad in 1975. Later, in 2005, he embraced spiritual practices of Sufis.
Vietnam War and resistance to the draft
Ali registered for the draft on his eighteenth birthday and was listed as 1-A in 1962. In 1964, he was reclassified as 1-Y (fit for service only in times of national emergency) after two mental tests found his IQ was 78 (16th percentile), well below the armed force's 30th-percentile threshold. (He was quoted as saying, "I said I was the greatest, not the smartest!") By early 1966, the army lowered its standards to permit soldiers above the 15th percentile and Ali was again classified as 1-A. This classification meant he was now eligible for the draft and induction into the United States Army during a time when the U.S. was involved in the Vietnam War.
When notified of this status, Ali declared that he would refuse to serve in the Army and publicly considered himself a conscientious objector. Ali stated: "War is against the teachings of the Holy Qur'an. I'm not trying to dodge the draft. We are not supposed to take part in no wars unless declared by Allah or The Messenger. We don't take part in Christian wars or wars of any unbelievers." More succinctly and famously he said, "I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong—no Viet Cong ever called me Nigger." The statement articulated, for many people, a reason to oppose the war.
Appearing for his scheduled induction into the U.S. Armed Forces on April 28, 1967 in Houston, Ali refused three times to step forward at the call of his name. An officer warned him he was committing a felony punishable by five years in prison and a fine of $10,000. Once more, Ali refused to budge when his name was called. As a result, he was arrested. On the same day the New York State Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and stripped him of his title. Other boxing commissions followed suit. Ali would not be able to obtain a license to box in any state for over three years.
In the years between the appellate court decision and the Supreme Court verdict, Ali remained free. As public opinion began turning against the war and the Civil Rights movement continued to gather momentum, Ali became a popular speaker at colleges and universities across the country, rare if not unprecedented for a boxer. At Howard University, for example, he gave his popular "Black Is Best" speech to 4,000 cheering students and community intellectuals, after he was invited to speak by sociology professor Nathan Hare on behalf of the Black Power Committee, a student protest group.
On June 28, 1971, the Supreme Court in Clay v. United States overturned Ali's conviction by a unanimous 8-0 decision (Justice Thurgood Marshall did not participate). The decision was not based on, nor did it address, the merits of Ali's claims per se; rather, the Court held that since the Appeal Board gave no reason for the denial of a conscientious objector exemption to Ali, and that it was therefore impossible to determine which of the three basic tests for conscientious objector status offered in the Justice Department's brief that the Appeals Board relied on, Ali's conviction must be reversed.
Impact of Ali's stance
Ali's example inspired countless black Americans and others. The New York Times columnist William Rhoden wrote, "Ali's actions changed my standard of what constituted an athlete's greatness. Possessing a killer jump shot or the ability to stop on a dime was no longer enough. What were you doing for the liberation of your people? What were you doing to help your country live up to the covenant of its founding principles?"
Recalling Ali's anti-war position, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar said: "I remember the teachers at my high school didn't like Ali because he was so anti-establishment and he kind of thumbed his nose at authority and got away with it. The fact that he was proud to be a Black man and that he had so much talent ... made some people think that he was dangerous. But for those very reasons I enjoyed him."
Ali inspired Martin Luther King, Jr., who had been reluctant to address the Vietnam War for fear of alienating the Johnson Administration and its support of the civil rights agenda. Now, King began to voice his own opposition to the war for the first time.
In speaking of the cost on Ali's career of his refusal to be drafted, his trainer Angelo Dundee said, "One thing must be taken into account when talking about Ali: He was robbed of his best years, his prime years."
Ali's resistance to the draft was covered in the 2013 documentary The Trials of Muhammad Ali. (See In the media and popular culture below.)
NSA monitoring of Ali's communications
In a secret operation code-named "Minaret", the National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including Ali, Senators Frank Church and Howard Baker, Dr. Martin Luther King, prominent U.S. journalists, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam. A review by NSA of the NSA's Minaret program concluded that Minaret was "disreputable if not outright illegal."
Quotes about the Vietnam War
|“||Man, I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong, no Viet Cong ever called me 'nigger'.||”|
|“||No, I am not going 10,000 miles to help murder, kill, and burn other people to simply help continue the domination of white slavemasters over dark people the world over. This is the day and age when such evil injustice must come to an end.||”|
|“||Why should they ask me to put on a uniform and go ten thousand miles from home and drop bombs and bullets on brown people in Vietnam while so-called Negro people in Louisville are treated like dogs and denied simple human rights?||”|
|“||My enemy is the white people, not the Viet Cong ... You're my opposer when I want freedom. You're my opposer when I want justice. You're my opposer when I want equality. You won't even stand up for me in America because of my religious beliefs, and you want me to go somewhere and fight, when you won't even stand up for my religious beliefs at home.||”|
Ali had a highly unorthodox boxing style for a heavyweight, epitomized by his catchphrase "float like a butterfly, sting like a bee". Never an overpowering puncher, Ali relied early in his career on his superior hand speed, superb reflexes and constant movement, dancing and circling opponents for most of the fight, holding his hands low and lashing out with a quick, cutting left jab that he threw from unpredictable angles. His footwork was so strong that it was extremely difficult for opponents to cut down the ring and corner Ali against the ropes.
One of Ali's greatest tricks was to make opponents overcommit by pulling straight backward from punches. Disciplined, world-class boxers chased Ali and threw themselves off balance attempting to hit him because he seemed to be an open target, only missing and leaving themselves exposed to Ali's counter punches, usually a chopping right. Slow motion replays show that this was precisely the way Sonny Liston was hit and apparently knocked out by Ali in their second fight. Ali often flaunted his movement and dancing with the "Ali Shuffle", a sort of center-ring jig. Ali's early style was so unusual that he was initially discounted because he reminded boxing writers of a lightweight, and it was assumed he would be vulnerable to big hitters like Sonny Liston.
Using a synchronizer, Jimmy Jacobs, who co-managed Mike Tyson, measured young Ali's punching speed versus Sugar Ray Robinson, a welter/middleweight, often considered the best pound-for-pound fighter in history. Ali was 25% faster than Robinson, even though Ali was 45–50 pounds heavier. Ali's punches produced approximately 1,000 pounds of force. "No matter what his opponents heard about him, they didn't realize how fast he was until they got in the ring with him", Jacobs said. The effect of Ali's punches was cumulative. "Ali would rub you out", said Floyd Patterson. "He would hit you 14,000 times and he wouldn't knock you out, he rubbed you out."[cite this quote] Charlie Powell, who fought Ali early in Ali's career and was knocked out in the third round, said: "When he first hit me I said to myself, 'I can take two of these to get one in myself.' But in a little while I found myself getting dizzier and dizzier every time he hit me. He throws punches so easily that you don't realize how much they hurt you until it's too late."
Commenting on fighting the young Ali, George Chuvalo said: "He was just so damn fast. When he was young, he moved his legs and hands at the same time. He threw his punches when he was in motion. He'd be out of punching range, and as he moved into range he'd already begun to throw the punch. So if you waited until he got into range to punch back, he beat you every time."
Floyd Patterson said, "It's very hard to hit a moving target, and (Ali) moved all the time, with such grace, three minutes of every round for fifteen rounds. He never stopped. It was extraordinary."
Darrell Foster, who trained Will Smith for the movie Ali, said: "Ali's signature punches were the left jab and the overhand right. But there were at least six different ways Ali used to jab. One was a jab that Ali called the 'snake lick', like cobra striking that comes from the floor almost, really low down. Then there was Ali's rapid-fire jab—three to five jabs in succession rapidly fired at his opponents' eyes to create a blur in his face so he wouldn't be able to see the right hand coming behind it."
In the opinion of many, Ali became a different fighter after the 3½-year layoff. Ferdie Pacheco, Ali's corner physician, noted that he had lost his ability to move and dance as before. This forced Ali to become more stationary and exchange punches more frequently, exposing him to more punishment while indirectly revealing his tremendous ability to take a punch. This physical change led in part to the "rope-a-dope" strategy, where Ali would lie back on the ropes, cover up to protect himself and conserve energy, and tempt opponents to punch themselves out. Ali often taunted opponents in the process and lashed back with sudden, unexpected combinations. The strategy was dramatically successful in the George Foreman fight, but less so in the first Joe Frazier bout when it was introduced.
Of his later career, Arthur Mercante said: "Ali knew all the tricks. He was the best fighter I ever saw in terms of clinching. Not only did he use it to rest, but he was big and strong and knew how to lean on opponents and push and shove and pull to tire them out. Ali was so smart. Most guys are just in there fighting, but Ali had a sense of everything that was happening, almost as though he was sitting at ringside analyzing the fight while he fought it."
Ali regularly taunted and baited his opponents—including Liston, Frazier, and Foreman—before the fight and often during the bout itself. Ali's pre-fight theatrics were almost always highly entertaining, and his words were sometimes cutting, and were largely designed to promote the fight. His antics often targeted a particular psychological trigger or vulnerability in his opponent that would provoke a reaction and cause the opponent to lose focus. He said Frazier was "too dumb to be champion", that he would whip Liston "like his Daddy did", that Terrell was an "Uncle Tom" and that Patterson was a "rabbit". Ali was a master of provocation, and he had a clear understanding that what one did to an opponent outside the ring could be even more crucial than what one did to him in the ring. In speaking of how Ali stoked Liston's anger and overconfidence before their first fight, one writer commented that "the most brilliant fight strategy in boxing history was devised by a teenager who had graduated 376 in a class of 391".
Ali typically portrayed himself as the "people's champion" and his opponent as a tool of the (white) establishment (despite the fact that his entourage often had more white faces than his opponents'). During the early part of Ali's career, he built a reputation for predicting rounds in which he would finish opponents, often vowing to crawl across the ring or to leave the country if he lost the bout. Ali admitted he adopted the latter practice from "Gorgeous" George Wagner, a popular professional wrestling champion in the Los Angeles area who drew thousands of fans to his matches as "the man you love to hate".
ESPN columnist Ralph Wiley called Ali "The King of Trash Talk". The Guardian recently lamented the decline of the "golden age of trash talking" in boxing, which, it said, was exemplified by Muhammad Ali. The Bleacher Report called Clay's description of Sonny Liston smelling like a bear and his vow to donate him to a zoo after he beat him the greatest trash talk line in sports history.
Muhammad Ali defeated every top heavyweight in his era, which has been called the golden age of heavyweight boxing. Ali was named "Fighter of the Year" by Ring Magazine more times than any other fighter, and was involved in more Ring Magazine "Fight of the Year" bouts than any other fighter. He is an inductee into the International Boxing Hall of Fame and holds wins over seven other Hall of Fame inductees. He is one of only three boxers to be named "Sportsman of the Year" by Sports Illustrated.
In 1978, three years before Ali's permanent retirement, the Board of Aldermen in his hometown of Louisville, Kentucky, voted 6–5 to rename Walnut Street to Muhammad Ali Boulevard. This was controversial at the time, as within a week 12 of the 70 street signs were stolen. Earlier that year, a committee of the Jefferson County Public Schools considered renaming Central High School in his honor, but the motion failed to pass. At any rate, in time, Muhammad Ali Boulevard—and Ali himself—came to be well accepted in his hometown. In 1993, the Associated Press reported that Ali was tied with Babe Ruth as the most recognized athlete, out of over 800 dead or alive athletes, in America. The study found that over 97% of Americans over 12 years of age identified both Ali and Ruth.
He was the recipient of the 1997 Arthur Ashe Courage Award. Two years later, in 1999, the BBC produced a special version of its annual BBC Sports Personality of the Year Award ceremony, and Ali was voted their Sports Personality of the Century, receiving more votes than the other four contenders combined. On September 13, 1999, Ali was named "Kentucky Athlete of the Century" by the Kentucky Athletic Hall of Fame in ceremonies at the Galt House East. On January 8, 2005, Muhammad Ali was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President George W. Bush. Later that November, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony. and the "Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold" of the UN Association of Germany (DGVN) in Berlin for his work with the US civil rights movement and the United Nations (December 17, 2005).
On November 19, 2005 (Ali's 19th wedding anniversary), the $60 million non-profit Muhammad Ali Center opened in downtown Louisville. In addition to displaying his boxing memorabilia, the center focuses on core themes of peace, social responsibility, respect, and personal growth. On June 5, 2007, he received an honorary doctorate of humanities at Princeton University's 260th graduation ceremony.
Ali Mall, located in Araneta Center, Quezon City, Philippines, is named after him. Construction of the mall, the first of its kind in the Philippines, began shortly after Ali's victory on a boxing match with Joe Frazier in nearby Araneta Coliseum in 1975. The mall opened in 1976 with Ali personally gracing its opening.
Ranking in heavyweight history
Ali is generally considered to be one of the greatest heavyweights of all time by boxing commentators and historians. Ring Magazine, a prominent boxing magazine, named him number 1 in a 1998 ranking of greatest heavyweights from all eras.
Ali was named the second greatest fighter in boxing history by ESPN.com behind only welterweight and middleweight great Sugar Ray Robinson. In December 2007, ESPN listed Ali second in its choice of the greatest heavyweights of all time, behind Joe Louis.
In the media and popular culture
As a world champion boxer and social activist, Ali has been the subject of numerous books, films and other creative works.
Ali had a cameo role in the 1962 film version of Requiem for a Heavyweight, and during his exile, he starred in the short-lived Broadway musical, Buck White (1969).
Ali appeared in the documentary film Black Rodeo (1972) riding both a horse and a bull. His autobiography The Greatest: My Own Story, written with Richard Durham, was published in 1975. In 1977 the book was adapted into a film called The Greatest, in which Ali played himself and Ernest Borgnine played Angelo Dundee.
The film Freedom Road, made in 1978, features Muhammad Ali in a rare acting role as Gideon Jackson, an ex-slave in 1870s Virginia who gets elected to the U.S. Senate in Washington, D.C., and battles other former slaves and white sharecroppers to keep the land they have tended all their lives. On the set of Freedom Road Ali met Canadian singer-songwriter Michel, and subsequently helped create Michel's album entitled The First Flight of the Gizzelda Dragon. and the hour-long television show With Love From Muhammad Ali.
The Muhammad Ali Effect, named after Ali, is a term that came into use in psychology in the 1980s, as he stated in his autobiography The Greatest: My Own Story: "I only said I was the greatest, not the smartest." According to this effect, when people are asked to rate their intelligence and moral behavior in comparison to others, people will rate themselves as more moral, but not more intelligent than others.
When We Were Kings, a 1996 documentary about the Rumble in the Jungle, won an Academy Award, and the 2001 biopic Ali garnered an Oscar nomination for Will Smith's portrayal of the lead role. The latter film was directed by Michael Mann, with mixed reviews, the positives given to Smith's portrayal of Ali. Prior to making the film, Smith rejected the role until Ali requested that he accept it. Smith said the first thing Ali told him was: "Man you're almost pretty enough to play me."
In 2002, for his contributions to the entertainment industry, Ali was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard. His star is the only one to be mounted on a vertical surface, out of deference to his request that his name not be walked upon.
The Trials of Muhammad Ali, a documentary directed by Bill Siegel that focuses on Ali's refusal of the draft during the Vietnam War, opened in Manhattan on August 23, 2013. A made-for-TV movie called Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight, also in 2013, dramatized the same aspect of Ali's life.
In 2015, Ali released his memoir The Greatest: My Own Story, which chronicles the battles he faced in and out of the ring. It was edited by Nobel Prize-winning novelist Toni Morrison.
Professional boxing record
|56 wins (37 knockouts, 19 decisions), 5 losses (4 decisions, 1 KO), 0 draws|
|Loss||56–5||Trevor Berbick||UD||10||1981-12-11||39 years, 328 days||Nassau, Bahamas||"Drama in the Bahamas"|
|Loss||56–4||Larry Holmes||TKO||10 (15)||1980-10-02||38 years, 259 days||Las Vegas, NV||Lost The Ring World Heavyweight title.|
For WBC World Heavyweight title.
|Win||56–3||Leon Spinks||UD||15||1978-09-15||36 years, 241 days||New Orleans, LA||Won The Ring & WBA World Heavyweight titles;|
Vacated WBA title on 1979-09-06.
|Loss||55–3||Leon Spinks||SD||15||1978-02-15||36 years, 29 days||Las Vegas, NV||Lost The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||55–2||Earnie Shavers||UD||15||1977-09-29||35 years, 255 days||New York, N.Y.||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||54–2||Alfredo Evangelista||UD||15||1977-05-16||35 years, 119 days||Landover, MD||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||53–2||Ken Norton||UD||15||1976-09-28||34 years, 255 days||The Bronx, N.Y.||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||52–2||Richard Dunn||TKO||5 (15)||1976-05-24||34 years, 128 days||Munich, West Germany||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||51–2||Jimmy Young||UD||15||1976-04-30||34 years, 104 days||Landover, MD||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||50–2||Jean-Pierre Coopman||KO||5 (15)||1976-02-20||34 years, 34 days||San Juan, Puerto Rico||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||49–2||Joe Frazier||TKO||14 (15), 0:59||1975-10-01||33 years, 257 days||Quezon City, Philippines||"Thrilla in Manila";|
Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.
|Win||48–2||Joe Bugner||UD||15||1975-06-30||33 years, 164 days||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||47–2||Ron Lyle||TKO||11 (15)||1975-05-16||33 years, 119 days||Las Vegas, NV||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||46–2||Chuck Wepner||TKO||15 (15), 2:41||1975-03-24||33 years, 66 days||Richfield, OH||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||45–2||George Foreman||KO||8 (15), 2:58||1974-10-30||32 years, 286 days||Kinshasa, Zaire||"The Rumble in the Jungle";|
Won The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles.
|Win||44–2||Joe Frazier||UD||12||1974-01-28||32 years, 11 days||New York, N.Y.||"Ali-Frazier II".|
Retained NABF Heavyweight title, vacated later in 1974.
|Win||43–2||Rudie Lubbers||UD||12||1973-10-20||31 years, 276 days||Jakarta, Indonesia|
|Win||42–2||Ken Norton||SD||12||1973-09-10||31 years, 236 days||Inglewood, CA||Won NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Loss||41–2||Ken Norton||SD||12||1973-03-31||31 years, 73 days||San Diego, CA||Lost NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Win||41–1||Joe Bugner||UD||12||1973-02-14||31 years, 28 days||Las Vegas, NV|
|Win||40–1||Bob Foster||KO||8 (12), 0:40||1972-11-21||30 years, 309 days||Stateline, NV||Retained NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Win||39–1||Floyd Patterson||TKO||7 (12)||1972-09-20||30 years, 247 days||New York, N.Y.||Retained NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Win||38–1||Alvin Lewis||TKO||11 (12), 1:15||1972-07-19||30 years, 184 days||Dublin, Ireland|
|Win||37–1||Jerry Quarry||TKO||7 (12), 0:19||1972-06-27||30 years, 162 days||Las Vegas, NV||Retained NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Win||36–1||George Chuvalo||UD||12||1972-05-01||30 years, 105 days||Vancouver, Canada||Retained NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Win||35–1||Mac Foster||UD||15||1972-04-01||30 years, 75 days||Tokyo, Japan|
|Win||34–1||Jürgen Blin||KO||7 (12), 2:12||1971-12-26||29 years, 343 days||Zurich, Switzerland|
|Win||33–1||Buster Mathis||UD||12||1971-11-17||29 years, 304 days||Houston, TX||Retained NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Win||32–1||Jimmy Ellis||TKO||12 (12), 2:10||1971-07-26||29 years, 190 days||Houston, TX||Won vacant NABF Heavyweight title.|
|Loss||31–1||Joe Frazier||UD||15||1971-03-08||29 years, 50 days||New York, N.Y.||"The Fight of the Century";|
Lost The Ring World Heavyweight.
For WBA & WBC World Heavyweight titles.
|Win||31–0||Oscar Bonavena||TKO||15 (15), 2:03||1970-12-07||28 years, 324 days||New York, N.Y.||Retained The Ring World Heavyweight title.|
|Win||30–0||Jerry Quarry||TKO||3 (15)||1970-10-26||28 years, 282 days||Atlanta, GA||Retained The Ring World Heavyweight title.|
|Win||29–0||Zora Folley||KO||7 (15), 1:48||1967-03-22||25 years, 64 days||New York, N.Y.||Retained The Ring, WBC & WBA World Heavyweight titles;|
Stripped of titles on April 28, 1967.
|Win||28–0||Ernie Terrell||UD||15 (15)||1967-02-06||25 years, 20 days||Houston, TX||Retained The Ring and WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
Won WBA World Heavyweight title.
|Win||27–0||Cleveland Williams||TKO||3 (15)||1966-11-14||24 years, 301 days||Houston, TX||Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||26–0||Karl Mildenberger||TKO||12 (15)||1966-09-10||24 years, 236 days||Frankfurt, West Germany||Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||25–0||Brian London||KO||3 (15)||1966-08-06||24 years, 201 days||London, U.K.||Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||24–0||Henry Cooper||TKO||6 (15), 1:38||1966-05-21||24 years, 124 days||London, U.K.||Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||23–0||George Chuvalo||UD||15||1966-03-29||24 years, 71 days||Toronto, Canada||Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||22–0||Floyd Patterson||TKO||12 (15), 2:18||1965-11-22||23 years, 309 days||Las Vegas, NV||Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||21–0||Sonny Liston||KO||1 (15), 2:12||1965-05-25||23 years, 128 days||Lewiston, ME||"Ali vs. Liston (II)"|
Retained The Ring & WBC World Heavyweight titles.
|Win||20–0||Sonny Liston||TKO||7 (15)||1964-02-25||22 years, 39 days||Miami Beach, FL||"Clay Liston I",|
Won The Ring, WBA & WBC World Heavyweight titles;
Stripped of WBA title on June 19, 1964.
|Win||19–0||Henry Cooper||TKO||5 (10), 2:15||1963-06-18||21 years, 152 days||London, U.K.|
|Win||18–0||Doug Jones||UD||10||1963-03-13||21 years, 55 days||New York, N.Y.|
|Win||17–0||Charlie Powell||KO||3 (10), 2:04||1963-01-24||21 years, 7 days||Pittsburgh, PA|
|Win||16–0||Archie Moore||TKO||4 (10), 1:35||1962-11-15||20 years, 302 days||Los Angeles, CA|
|Win||15–0||Alejandro Lavorante||KO||5 (10), 1:48||1962-07-20||20 years, 184 days||Los Angeles, CA|
|Win||14–0||Billy Daniels||TKO||7 (10), 2:21||1962-05-19||20 years, 122 days||New York, N.Y.|
|Win||13–0||George Logan||TKO||4 (10), 1:34||196204-23||20 years, 96 days||New York, N.Y.|
|Win||12–0||Don Warner||TKO||4 (10), 0:34||1962-03-28||20 years, 70 days||Miami Beach, FL|
|Win||11–0||Sonny Banks||TKO||4 (10), 0:26||1962-2-10||20 years, 24 days||New York, N.Y.|
|Win||10–0||Willi Besmanoff||TKO||7 (10), 1:55||1961-11-29||19 years, 316 days||Louisville, KY|
|Win||9–0||Alex Miteff||TKO||6 (10), 1:45||1961-10-7||19 years, 263 days||Louisville, KY|
|Win||8–0||Alonzo Johnson||UD||(10)||1961-7-22||19 years, 186 days||Louisville, KY|
|Win||7–0||Duke Sabedong||UD||10||1961-6-26||19 years, 160 days||Las Vegas, NV|
|Win||6–0||LaMar Clark||KO||2 (10), 1:27||1961-4-19||19 years, 92 days||Louisville, KY|
|Win||5–0||Donnie Fleeman||TKO||7 (8)||1961-2-21||19 years, 35 days||Miami Beach, FL|
|Win||4–0||Jim Robinson||KO||1 (8), 1:34||1961-2-17||19 years, 21 days||Miami Beach, FL|
|Win||3–0||Tony Esperti||TKO||3 (8), 1:30||1961-1-17||19 years, 0 days||Miami Beach, FL|
|Win||2–0||Herb Siler||KO||4 (8)||1960-12-27||18 years, 345 days||Miami Beach, FL|
|Win||1–0||Tunney Hunsaker||UD||6 (6)||1960-10-29||18 years, 286 days||Louisville, KY|
Awards and nominations
Double Helix Medal
|Book: Muhammad Ali|
|Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print.|
- Muhammad Ali in media and popular culture
- List of heavyweight boxing champions
- List of North American Muslims
- List of people from the Louisville metropolitan area
- List of WBA world champions
- List of WBC world champions
- Notable boxing families
- Conscientious objector
- ↑ Cassius Clay. sports-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved on January 17, 2014.
- ↑ "Ali". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali – Biography of Muhammad Ali – Page 2. History1900s.about.com. Retrieved on September 5, 2011.
- ↑ Cagle, Jess (December 17, 2001). "Ali: Lord of the Ring". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1001498,00.html. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- ↑ "CNN/SI – SI Online – This Week's Issue of Sports Illustrated – Ali named SI's Sportsman of the Century – Friday December 03, 1999 12:00 AM". Sports Illustrated. December 3, 1999. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/features/cover/news/1999/12/02/awards. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- ↑ "Ali crowned Sportsman of Century". BBC News. December 13, 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sport/561352.stm.
- ↑ Hallett, Alison. "Not So Fast | Film". Portland Mercury. http://www.portlandmercury.com/portland/not-so-fast/Content?oid=10883366. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Rhoden, William C. (June 20, 2013). "In Ali's Voice From the Past, a Stand for the Ages". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/21/sports/in-alis-voice-from-the-past-a-stand-for-the-ages.html?_r=0.
- ↑ "Muhammad Ali". ESPN. January 20, 2012. http://espn.go.com/sports/boxing/topics/_/page/muhammad-ali. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali - press conference 1974. YouTube (September 26, 2012). Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali - Pre Liston Poetry & Highlights. YouTube (February 12, 2011). Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali Famous Interview After Defeating Foreman. YouTube (January 6, 2010). Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ among many examples. YouTube. Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali vs Floyd Patterson Pre-fight hype and interview. YouTube (April 21, 2007). Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ See Video on YouTube where he stated that the United States was the most racist country in the world; see also Joyce Carol Oates article reprinted in http://www.usfca.edu/jco/muhammadali/
- ↑ see quotes on Ali's influence on African Americans in essay by Thomas Hauser reprinted in www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/civil-rights-movement/essays/importance-muhammad-ali
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Garcia, Courtney (September 6, 2013). 'Trials of Muhammad Ali' highlights boxer's anti-war opposition. theGrio. Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Joyce Carol Oates, On Boxing
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- ↑ "Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr., Former Champion's Father, 77". Associated Press in The New York Times. February 10, 1990. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CEFDA1230F933A25751C0A966958260. Retrieved September 4, 2009.
- ↑ Egerton (1991), p. 134
- ↑ Hauser 2004, p. 14
- ↑ "Ali has Irish ancestry". BBC News. February 9, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/boxing/1810535.stm. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
- ↑ Rietwiesner, Williams Adams. Ancestry of Muhammad Ali.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali.
- ↑ Kandel, Elmo (April 1, 2006). "Boxing Legend – Muhammad Ali". Article Click (Elmo Kandel). Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. https://web.archive.org/20080611174640/http://www.articleclick.com:80/Article/Boxing-Legend---Muhammad-Ali/938509. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali. University of Florida. Retrieved on May 20, 2008.
- ↑ "GODFATHER" OF CUTMEN-CHUCK BODAK SUFFERS STROKE September 2, 2007 by Pedro Fernandez, ringtalk.com
- ↑ Nathan Ward "'A Total Eclipse of the Sonny'" , American Heritage, Oct. 2006.[dead link]
- ↑ 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 31.11 31.12 31.13 Hauser 2004
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Bob Mee, Ali and Liston: The Boy Who Would Be King and the Ugly Bear, 2011.
- ↑ Irusta, Carlos (January 17, 2012). "Dundee: Ali was, still is 'The Greatest'". ESPN. http://espn.go.com/boxing/story/_/id/7470417/muhammad-ali-was-continues-greatest. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- ↑ "Sweet Thunder: The Life and Times of Sugar Ray Robinson" by Wil Haygood, page 378
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- ↑ 36.0 36.1 Lipsyte, Robert (February 26, 1964). "Clay Wins Title in Seventh-Round Upset As Liston Is Halted by Shoulder Injury". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/10/25/specials/ali-upset.html. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
- ↑ Sugar, Bert Randolph (November 1, 2003). Bert Sugar on Boxing: The Best of the Sport's Most Notable Writer. Globe Pequot. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-59228-048-3. https://books.google.com/?id=tJ2uBBsN0E0C.
- ↑ In an interview in 1974, Ali said that, prior to his later fight with Foreman, a one-time member of Liston's entourage offered him a linament that could be applied to boxing gloves and that would cause a blinding, temporary stinging of the eyes. Video on YouTube
- ↑ Grody, Ray (November 14, 1964). "Clay victim of hernia, bout off". Milwaukee Sentinel: p. 2-part 2. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=_H9QAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ZBEEAAAAIBAJ&pg=7366%2C3403466.
- ↑ Anderson, Dave (January 16, 1992). "Sports of The Times; On His 50th, Ali Is Still 'The Greatest'". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/16/sports/sports-of-the-times-on-his-50th-ali-is-still-the-greatest.html?src=pm. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- ↑ Shalit, Nevin I. (July 15, 1980). "Muhammad Ali: Losing the Real Title". The Harvard Crimson. http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1980/7/15/muhammad-ali-losing-the-real-title/. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- ↑ Dundee, Maule, Angelo, Tex (August 28, 1967). "He Could Go To Jail And Still Be Champ". Sports Illustrated. http://cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1080216/1/index.htm. Retrieved February 17, 2012. [dead link]
- ↑ Tex Maule (February 13, 1967). "Cruel Ali With All The Skills". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130309201457/http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1079523/1/index.htm.
- ↑ John H. Britton, "Ga. Senator Gets TKOed By His Political 'Friends'", Jet, March 4, 1971, pp. 52–54.
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- ↑ Muhammad Ali's Deer Lake Training Camp Retrieved December 8, 2014.
- ↑ Butterfly & Bee Bed and Breakfast Retrieved December 8, 2014.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali- The Rumble In The Jungle(Interview). YouTube (March 22, 1967). Retrieved on September 3, 2013.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali Inspirational Speech (Cassius Clay Boxing Motivation). YouTube (September 14, 2012). Retrieved on September 3, 2013.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 50.2 Tallent, Aaron. The Joke That Almost Ended Ali's Career. The Sweet Science. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved on December 4, 2007.
- ↑ "Champion Ali Quits Boxing". The Paris News: p. 12. October 1, 1976. http://www.newspaperarchive.com/SiteMap/FreePdfPreview.aspx?img=110827611?sec=Sports. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- ↑ "Muhammad Ali – Fast Facts – CNN.com". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/21/us/muhammad-ali---fast-facts/. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- ↑ Koch, Ed. "Timeline: Fifty years of Las Vegas memories for Muhammad Ali". Las Vegas Sun. http://www.lasvegassun.com/muhammad-ali/timeline/. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- ↑ Hale, Mike (October 26, 2009). "Boxing King Casts His Shadow, Even at Time of Defeat". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/27/arts/television/27muhammad.html. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- ↑ Thomas Jr., Robert McG. (September 20, 1984). "Change In Drug Helps Ali Improve". The New York Times: pp. D–29. http://www.nytimes.com/1984/09/20/sports/change-in-drug-helps-ali-improve.html?sec=health. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
- ↑ "Ali Leaves Hospital Vowing to take better care of himself and get more sleep". The New York Times. September 22, 1984. http://www.nytimes.com/1984/09/22/sports/sports-people-ali-leaves-hospital-vowing-take-better-care-himself-get-more-sleep.html. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
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- ↑ WrestleMania I: Celebrities. Wwe.com (March 31, 1985). Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved on January 29, 2012.
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- ↑ Wilson, Stan (July 28, 2012). "Muhammad Ali returns to the Olympic stage, once again, in London". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/27/sport/olympics-muhammad-ali/index.html. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- ↑ Brother: Muhammad Ali 'could be dead in days'. Retrieved on February 3, 2013.
- ↑ "Muhammad Ali's daughter: Father watching Super Bowl, not near death". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-400_162-57567369/muhammad-alis-daughter-father-watching-super-bowl-not-near-death/. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- ↑ "Muhammad Ali hospitalized with pneumonia". Associated Press. The National Sports Journal. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20141221093217/http://www.nujournal.com/page/content.detail/id/761659/Muhammad-Ali-hospitalized-with-pneumonia.html?isap=1&nav=5036. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- ↑ Christopher Bucktin (January 16, 2015). "Boxing legend Muhammad Ali in hospital after being found 'unresponsive' at his home". The Mirror. http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/boxing/boxing-legend-muhammad-ali-intensive-4987518. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali back in hospital after he was found 'unresponsive in his bed' - just days after the boxing great's 73rd birthday (January 15, 2015). Retrieved on January 16, 2015.
- ↑ "Ali out of hospital in time for 73rd birthday". MSN. http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/sports/ali-out-of-hospital-in-time-for-73rd-birthday/ar-AA8g057?ocid=ansspafp11. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
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- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 Winstead, Fry, Clay, Greathouse, and Alexander Family Tree:Information about Muhammad Ali. Familytreemaker.genealogy.com. Retrieved on August 5, 2009.
- ↑ Company, Johnson Publishing (December 8, 2003). "Muhammad Ali's Daughter, May May Ali, Writes Children's Book About His Boxing Career". Jet 104 (24): 38. https://books.google.com/books?id=L7QDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA38
- ↑ Laila Ali. Womenboxing.com. Retrieved on January 29, 2012.
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- ↑ Laila Ali - Boxer. BoxRec. Retrieved on January 3, 2014.
- ↑ "Muhammad Ali confesses illness put a stop to his 'girl chasing,' but his son is just starting". Findarticles.com. 1997. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n10_v91/ai_19082473/. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
- ↑ Miller, Davis (September 12, 1993). "Still Larger Than Life – To Millions, Muhammad Ali Will Always Be The Champ". The Seattle Times. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19930912&slug=1720560. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
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- ↑ History website, Muhammad Ali: "Cassius Clay is my slave name". BBC. Retrieved on July 2, 2013.
- ↑ Handler, M. S. (March 9, 1964). "Malcolm X Splits with Muhammad". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00D17FB395415738DDDA00894DB405B848AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008. (subscription required)
- ↑ Muhammed Ali, Soul of a Butterfly
- ↑ 91.0 91.1 Hauser, Thomas (November 2, 2003). "The living flame". The Observer (UK). http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,1072751,00.html. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- ↑ Caldwell, Deborah. Muhammad Ali's New Spiritual Quest. Beliefnet. Retrieved on May 20, 2008.
- ↑ 93.0 93.1 93.2 93.3 Foley, Michael (2003), Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam War, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-5436-0, http://uncpress.unc.edu/browse/page/337 .
- ↑ 94.0 94.1 94.2 Eric Neel. Page2 - Muhammad Ali from A to Z. ESPN. Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ see http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Ali.htm
- ↑ Reemstsma, Jean (1999). More Than a Champion: The Style of Muhammad Ali. New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-375-70005-7. https://books.google.com/?id=Hc9tZ7IfUTEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=more+than+a+champion+prime#v=onepage&q=stronger&f=false. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
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- ↑ "This Week in Black History". Jet. May 2, 1994. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090428040723/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n26_v85/ai_15407999/. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
- ↑ Cassius Marsellus CLAY, Jr. also known as Muhammad Ali, Petitioner, v. UNITED STATES. | Supreme Court | LII / Legal Information Institute. Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Clay v. United States | The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. Oyez.org. Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Interview with Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Digital.wustl.edu (March 3, 1989). Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ Wallace, Max (April 30, 2000). "BACKTALK; Today's Athletes Owe Everything to Ali – Page 3". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/30/sports/backtalk-today-s-athletes-owe-everything-to-ali.html?pagewanted=3. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- ↑ Angelo Dundee: Muhammad Ali was, continues to be 'The Greatest' - ESPN. Espn.go.com (January 17, 2012). Retrieved on November 5, 2013.
- ↑ 104.0 104.1 Ed Pilkington, "Declassified NSA Files Show Agency Spied on Muhammad Ali and MLK Operation Minaret Set Up in 1960s to Monitor Anti-Vietnam Critics, Branded 'Disreputable If Not Outright Illegal' by NSA Itself", The Guardian, September 26, 2013.
- ↑ Remnick, David (October 5, 1999). King of the World: Muhammad Ali and the Rise of an American Hero. Random House Digital, Inc.. p. 287. ISBN 0-375-70229-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=mErseIty9dwC.
- ↑ African-American involvement in the Vietnam war (1967). Retrieved on May 25, 2010.
- ↑ Haas, Jeffrey (November 1, 2009). The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther. Lawrence Hill Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-55652-765-4. https://books.google.com/?id=ignjecF9pX4C.
- ↑ Slack, Jack (January 24, 2013). Pulling Back the Curtain on Muhammad Ali. Bloody Elbow. Retrieved on July 2, 2013.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali knockout Sonny Liston in Slow Motion HD. YouTube (October 30, 1974). Retrieved on September 3, 2013.
- ↑ Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. by Muhammad Ali. Quotedb.com. Retrieved on December 5, 2010.
- ↑ 111.0 111.1 Paul Gallenger, Sonny Liston.
- ↑ Phillip Starr (2008). Martial Mechanics: Maximum Results with Minimum Effort in the Practice of Martial Arts. Blue Snake Books. p. 13. ISBN 1583942114.
- ↑ Thomas Hauser (2012). Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times (Enhanced Edition). Open Road Media. ISBN 1453250638.
- ↑ "How to...fight like Muhammad Ali | Sport". The Observer (London). February 9, 2011. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,641739,00.html. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- ↑ Wiley, Ralph (September 13, 2001). Page2 - Jive trash talkin'. ESPN. Retrieved on September 3, 2013.
- ↑ Boxing trash talk that stings like a bee | Open thread | Comment is free. The Guardian (September 28, 2007). Retrieved on September 3, 2013.
- ↑ The 50 Best Trash Talk Lines in Sports History. Bleacher Report. Retrieved on September 3, 2013.
- ↑ Hill, Bob (November 19, 2005). "Ali stirs conflicting emotions in hometown". The Courier-Journal. http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051119/ALI01/511190320. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- ↑ Wilstein, Steve, Associated Press, "Retton, Hammill most popular American athletes in United States: poll"; The Daily Gazette, May 17, 1993.
- ↑ "BBC SPORT | TV/Radio Schedule | Past winners: 1998–2004". BBC News. November 8, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/tv_and_radio/sports_personality_2003/3222644.stm. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- ↑ Spears, Marc J. (September 14, 1999). "Ali: The Greatest of 20th century; Show stops when the champ arrives for awards dinner". The Courier-Journal. http://www.courier-journal.com/localnews/1999/9909/14/990914ali.html. Retrieved January 7, 2007. [dead link]
- ↑ William Plumber (November 3, 2003). Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients. White House Press Secretary. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2008.
- ↑ "Bush presents Ali with Presidential Medal of Freedom". ESPN. November 14, 2005. http://sports.espn.go.com/sports/boxing/news/story?id=2219166. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- ↑ Ryan, Joe (June 5, 2007). "Boxing legend Ali gets Princeton degree". The Star-Ledger (Newark, New Jersey). http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2007/06/boxing_legend_ali_gets_princet_1.html. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- ↑ Ali Mall: First Ever Shopping Mall Makes A Comeback. Araneta Center website. Accessed May 6, 2015.
- ↑ Was Ali the Greatest Heavyweight?. Boxinginsider.com. Retrieved on December 5, 2010.
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- ↑ Magazine of the Week (September 28, 2006): Sports Illustrated November 28, 1983. Dtmagazine.com. Retrieved on January 29, 2012.
- ↑ Song Stand By Me, recorded in 1964 by Muhammad Ali, then known as Cassius Clay. Youtube.com (December 13, 2008). Retrieved on February 20, 2013.
- ↑ Different versions of 'Stand By Me'. Secondhandsongs.com. Retrieved on February 20, 2013.
- ↑ 133.0 133.1 Durham, Richard; Ali, Muhammad; Richard Durham (October 1975). The greatest, my own story. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-46268-4. OCLC 1622063. https://books.google.com/?id=EkfhAAAAMAAJ.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali's appearance on This Is Your Life. Retrieved on January 11, 2016.
- ↑ Allison, Scott T.; Messick, David M.; Goethals, George R. (1989). "On Being Better but not Smarter than Others: The Muhammad Ali Effect". Social Cognition 7 (3): 275–295. DOI:10.1521/soco.19188.8.131.525.
- ↑ Van Lange, P. A. M. (December 1, 1991). "Being Better but Not Smarter than Others: The Muhammad Ali Effect at Work in Interpersonal Situations". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17 (6): 689–693. DOI:10.1177/0146167291176012.
- ↑ When We Were Kings (1996).
- ↑ Ali (2001).
- ↑ "FILM , Will Smith peaks as Ali". BBC News. December 25, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1719162.stm. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- ↑ Hollywood Walk of Fame database. HWOF.com.
- ↑ Christian, Margena A. (April 16, 2007). "How Do You Really Get A Star On The Hollywood Walk Of Fame?". Jet Magazine 111 (15): 25, 29. https://books.google.com/books?id=BjsDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA29#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
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- ↑ Rapold, Nicolas (August 22, 2013). "One of His Biggest Fights Was Outside of the Ring". The New York Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/2013/08/23/movies/trials-of-muhammad-ali-traces-alis-battle-over-vietnam.html. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
- ↑ The Trials of Muhammed Ali Kartemquin Films. Kartemquin Educational Films. Retrieved on August 26, 2013.
- ↑ Muhammad Ali – Boxer. Boxrec.com. Retrieved on September 5, 2011.
- ↑ Steen, Rob (October 29, 2006). "Obituary: Trevor Berbick". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2006/oct/30/guardianobituaries.sport. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- Cashill, Jack (2006). Sucker Punch: The Hard Left Hook That Dazed Ali and Killed King's Dream. Thomas Nelson Inc. ISBN 978-1-41855-172-8. https://books.google.com/?id=QtzJwMKcOoEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=jack+cashill+muhammad+ali+2011#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- Hauser, Thomas (October 21, 2004). Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times. Robson Books. ISBN 978-1-86105-738-9. OCLC 56645513. https://books.google.com/?id=UkFxgibeS1AC.
- Schulke, Flip; Matt Schudel (2000). Muhammad Ali: The Birth of a Legend, Miami, 1961–1964. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-20340-5. https://books.google.com/?id=5h2JHAAACAAJ.
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