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Muhammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (1871–1962) (Arabic: محمد عبدالقدير صديقى ) was an Islamic theologian, Qur'anic exegete, poet, and a Sufi of Southern India. Born in the city of Hyderabad, Siddiqi was the first Dean of the faculty of Theology of the newly established Osmania University, built by the Nizam VII Osman Ali Khan of the State of Hyderabad. Due to his knowledge of Islamic Sciences, Siddiqi was always referred to by his peers and followers as Bahr Ul Uloom (ocean of knowledge). He compiled poetry in Arabic, Persian, and Urdu and adopted the pen name of Hasrat. He belonged to a family of many titles, but shunned them and referred to himself as "Maulvi", an appellation of his Shaikh during his childhood.
Known among his close spiritual disciples as Qadeer Piya or "Qadeer the Beloved", Siddiqi was a descendant of the first Islamic Caliph, Abu Bakr. His ancestors came from Cheenak, a small town near the city of Ahmedabad in the modern Indian State of Gujrat. He acquired his initial education through individual spiritual teachers and later passed private examinations from University of Punjab from where he received the degrees of Maulvi Fazil and Munshi Fazil. At the age of fifteen when he received his first degree of Maulvi, he started his career as a Mufti. After the establishment of Osmania University he served there are Dean of Theology. After retirement, he continued to educate people at his private home. He died in 1962 and is buried in the town of Siddiq Gulshan, Hyderabad. A dome is currently being constructed on his grave and is expected to be as high as 117 feet.
His death anniversary is commemorated every year on the 16th, 17th and 18th of the Islamic month of Shawwal. Many biographies have been written including "Toor Tajalli", "Yaad-e-Hasrat Ayaat" (compiled by his son Dr. Moosa Abdurrehman Siddiqui), and "Abdullah" (a 600 pages book compiled by his grandson, Muhammad Anwaruddin siddique). All three are in Urdu language and in print.
His first spiritual master was his maternal uncle, Muhammad Siddiq Hussaini, who had produced many generations of sufi teachers like Ahmad Ali Shah, Mahmood Makki, Omar Hussaini, Osman Hussaini, Hazrat Syed Yahya Husaaini, Abdul Muqtadir Siddiqui Fazl, Baqir Hussaini and many more. Muhammad Siddiq had many titles but most famous was "Mahbooballah" (Beloved of God). After the death of his Shaikh, Siddiqi who was 24 years old, travelled all over the Muslim world and benefited from the knowledge and wisdom of many other scholars and spiritual doctors. However whenever he said "My Shaikh", it meant shaikh Siddiq. He used to say, "My father is Siddiqi [a reference to his ancestor Abu Bakr as-Siddiq] and my shaikh is siddiq. I am a Siddiqi from every angle".
He had thousands of students as a professor of theology in Osmania University. Some notable ones were:
- Sayyid Muhammad Badshah Husaini - Appointed to address in the grand Makkah Masjid after the Jumu'ah prayers
- Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah - Internationally acclaimed Islamic scholar of France
- Abdul Hafiz Qatil, Ilyas Burney, former Head of Department of Economics at Osmania University
- Dr. Syedd Abdul Latif - Famous English critic
Music and poetry Students
He trained a number of students in sufi poetry, most notable being his grandson Waqar Siddiqui whose Qawwalies were sung by famous Qawwals such as Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.
He also trained many Qawwals in the spiritual aspects of Qawwali. That included internationally famous Qawwals like Raziuddin, Bahauddin, Manzoor among others, whose children are now performing at international levels such as Coke Studio of Pakistan.
He had ninety two spiritual successors, during his life time, the last one being his grandson Hussain Ataullah Siddiqi. Their followers are in thousands, spread all over the world. Each specialized in at least one branch of art of knowledge. Most notable are:
- Muhammad Abdul Razzaq Siddiqui - His grandson and the current Ja-i Nashin or succession seat holder.
- Ahmed Abdus-shakoor Siddiqui - His only surviving son in USA who is writing books on his father's works and publishing them.
- Qazi Ahmed Bashiruddin Farooqui - His only surviving son-in-law who runs an organization in Canada to celebrate the anniversaries of the Shaikh and his Shaikhs. These events are covered by local TV, Radio, and Newspapers.
- Dr. Iqbal Ali Khan - Medical Superintendent of Anklesaria Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. He published the Tafseer-e-Siddiqui in Pakistan and teaches spiritual education as well.
Translation of the Quran
In addition to this completed tafsir, he also compiled separate commentaries focused on the first chapter of the Qur'an "Surat al-Fatihah" titled "Tafsir-e-surat al-Fatihah" as well as the 30th part of the Qur'an Juz' al-'Amm, which was titled as Tafsir-e-Latifi. In this he addressed the womenfolk during the explanation of different verses and hence the word "Latifi" appears in the title.
Main article : Kulliyyat-e-Hasrat.
All of his poetry works, whether written in Urdu, Arabic, and Persian, is combined in "Kulliyyat-e-Hasrat".As the title Kulliyyat calls for various branches of poetry are included, Ghazal, Qasidah, Marsia, Nazm, Ruba'iyat. It consists of Hamd, Na'at, Manqabat homage to his Shaikh and other Sufi saints of his order including Abdul Qadir Jilani and Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer, India.
When he felt that Ibn Arabi's Fusus-al-Hikam was misunderstood by both the followers and critics of the Shaikh due to his unique style, Siddiqui decided to have an interpretive translation into Urdu. The translation received critical acclaim, and was included in the curriculum of many schools most notably the University of Punjab, Lahore.
The critics of Hanafi School of Fiqh regarded it as a Fiqh of a persons personal opinion. Siddiqui compiled the Hadiths explicating the jurisprudential details of the Hanafi School of Law, argueing that the Hanafi School is totally based on the Quran and the Hadith. This work is titled "Ad-Din" and consists of four sections.
- 1. Kitab al-'Ilm - Book of Knowledge.
- 2. Kitab al-Iman - Book of Faith
- 3. Kitab al-Ihsan - Book of Virtues
- 4. Kitab al-Islam - Book of Islam
This was included in the syllabus of Osmania University.
Among them are:
- Al-Tawhid, in Persian and translated in Urdu by his eldest son Muhammad Abdul Rahim Siddiqi,
- Hikmat-e Islamiyyah
- Tafhimat-e Siddiqi
- Sud ka Mas'alah
- Haqiqat-e Bay'at
Siddiqui was ill for a long time and, fifteen days before his death, ordered that his grave be dug in 'Siddique Gulshan'. Siddiqui died on 24 March 1962 at 3:45 pm.
- Sufi Saints of South Asia
- Qadri-Qadeeri Silsila
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