Levels of Communication 1) INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION- is language use or thought internal to the communicator. Intrapersonal communication is the active internal involvement of the individual in symbolic processing of messages. The individual becomes his or her own sender and receiver, providing feedback to him or herself in an ongoing internal process. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop. Although successful communication is generally defined as being between two or more individuals, issues concerning the useful nature of communicating with oneself and problems concerning communication with non-sentient entities such as computers have made some argue that this definition is too narrow. In Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry, Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson argue that intrapersonal communication is indeed a special case of interpersonal communication, as "dialogue is the foundation for all discourse." Intrapersonal communication can encompass: • Day-dreaming • Nocturnal dreaming, including and especially lucid dreaming • Speaking aloud (talking to oneself), reading aloud, repeating what one hears; the additional activities of speaking and hearing (in the third case of hearing again) what one thinks, reads or hears may increase concentration and retention. This is considered normal, and the extent to which it occurs varies from person to person. The time when there should be concern is when talking to oneself occurs outside of socially acceptable situations. • Writing (by hand, or with a wordprocessor, etc.) one's thoughts or observations: the additional activities, on top of thinking, of writing and reading back may again increase self-understanding ("How do I know what I mean until I see what I say?") and concentration. It aids ordering one's thoughts; in addition it produces a record that can be used later again. Copying text to aid memorizing also falls in this category. • Making gestures while thinking: the additional activity, on top of thinking, of body motions, may again increase concentration, assist in problem solving, and assist memory. • Sense-making (see Karl Weick) e.g. interpreting maps, texts, signs, and symbols • Interpreting non-verbal communication (see Albert Mehrabian) e.g. gestures, eye contact • Communication between body parts; e.g. "My stomach is telling me it's time for lunch."
2.)INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION- Interpersonal communication is defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, though most definitions involve participants who are interdependent on one another, have a shared history. Communication channels are the medium chosen to convey the message from sender to receiver. Communication channels can be categorized into two main categories: Direct and Indirect channels of communication. Direct channels are those that are obvious and can be easily recognized by the receiver. They are also under direct control of the sender. In this category are the verbal and non-verbal channels of communication. Verbal communication channels are those that use words in some manner, such as written communication or spoken communication. Non-verbal communication channels are those that do not require silly words, such as certain overt facial expressions, controllable body movements (such as that made by a traffic police to control traffic at an intersection), color (red for danger, green means go etc), sound (sirens, alarms etc.). Indirect channels are those channels that are usually recognized subliminally or subconsciously by the receiver, and not under direct control of the sender. This includes kinesics or body language, that reflects the inner emotions and motivations rather than the actual delivered message. It also includes such vague terms as "gut feeling", "hunches" or "premonitions". Channels means mode of communicating the messages. Participants is the communicators who are both senders and receivers. Context refers to the interrelated condition of communication. It consists of such factors as: physical Milieu Balance of interpersonal communication The Johari window model focuses on the balance of interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication encompasses: • Speech communication • Nonverbal communication • Unconscious communication • summarizing • paraphrasing • listening • questioning • Initiating: Declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner • Turn-taking: Managing the flow of information back and forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of speaker and listener
Having good interpersonal communication skills support such processes as: • parenting • intimate relationship • management • selling • counseling • coaching • mentoring and co-mentoring, which is mentoring in groups • conflict management
Interpersonal communication is the subject of a number of disciplines in the field of psychology, notably Transactional analysis.
3.) GROUP COMMUNICATION- refers to the nature of communication that occurs in groups that are between 3 and 12 individuals. Small group communication generally takes place in a context that mixes interpersonal communication interactions with social clustering.
4.) PUBLIC COMMUNICATION- It's at the heart of our economy, society, and politics. Studios use it to promote their films. Politicians use it to get elected. Businesses use it to burnish their image. Advocates use it to promote social causes. It's a field built on ideas and images, persuasion and information, strategy and tactics. No policy or product can succeed without a smart message targeted to the right audience in creative and innovative ways.
by : Jonathan Gonzales
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