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Integrism (French: Intégrisme) is a term coined in early 20th century polemics within the Catholic Church, especially in France, as an epithet to describe those who opposed the "modernists", who sought to create a synthesis between Christian theology and the liberal philosophy of secular modernity. The term was originally used by dissidents during the time of Pope St. Pius X, whose papacy was between 1903 to 1914, in attacks on Catholics who upheld his encyclicals such as Pascendi Dominici Gregis and most significantly Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors, which specifically condemned the modernist position.
Those who were called "integrists", or regarded themselves as defenders of Sacred Tradition, contrary to the modernists sought the continuation of traditional Catholic truths, which they claim, have always been taught. Some critics have framed this within a sociopolitical context of a general opposition to the secular modernity of the Western world. As represented chiefly by the Revolution in France of 1789 and the ascent in society of a secular bourgeoise leadership caste, who were often cosmopolitan, republican and anti-clerical in worldview. By the late 20th century, these elements were strong critics of the "spirit of Vatican II", emerging from the Second Vatican Council, including the suppression of the Tridentine Rite and some of the Council itself.
The term "integrism" is largely restricted to French sociopolital parlance, while the term traditional Catholics has become more prominent in recent times and is generally the most common term used in the Anglosphere to describe anti-modernist elements. The term has also been borrowed in some cultures to describe elements within non-Catholic religious movements who are also opposed to the radical end of Western liberalism, such as Protestant fundamentalism or Islamism.
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