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1989 Hillsborough disaster
The Leppings Lane end of Hillsborough Stadium during the disaster
The Leppings Lane end of Hillsborough Stadium during the disaster
Date 15 April 1989 (1989-04-15)
Location Hillsborough Stadium
Sheffield, England
Coordinates 53°24′42″N 1°30′06″W / 53.41154°N 1.50154°W / 53.41154; -1.50154Coordinates: 53°24′42″N 1°30′06″W / 53.41154°N 1.50154°W / 53.41154; -1.50154
Injuries 766
Death(s) 96 (94 on the day)
Inquiries Taylor Report (1990)
Hillsborough Independent Panel (2012)
Coroner

Dr. Stefan Popper

The 1989 Hillsborough disaster was a human crush which occurred during the FA Cup semi-final match between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest football clubs on 15 April 1989 at the Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England. The crush resulted in the deaths of 96 people and 766 people were injured. The disaster remains the worst stadium-related disaster in British history and one of the world's worst football disasters.[1]

Football clubs contest the semi-final of the FA Cup at a neutral venue, and in 1989 Hillsborough was selected by the Football Association. Opposing supporters were segregated in the stadium, Liverpool fans allocated the Leppings Lane stand, accessed by a limited number of turnstiles.[2] As the entry point became overcrowded before kick-off, police ordered an exit gate to be opened allowing supporters to enter a tunnel leading directly to two enclosures (pens). The ensuing influx of supporters caused crushing and some fans climbed over side fences to escape. Moments after kick-off a crush barrier broke and fans began to fall on top of each other.[3] The game was stopped after six minutes. To carry away the injured, supporters tore down advertising hoardings and emergency services were called to provide assistance. Of the 96 fatalities, 14 were admitted to hospital.

The official inquiry into the disaster, the Taylor Report in 1990, concluded that "the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control."[4] The report's findings resulted in the elimination of standing terraces at all major football stadiums in England, Wales and Scotland.

On the 20th anniversary of the disaster, government minister Andy Burnham called for the police, ambulance, and all other public bodies to release documents which had not been made available to Taylor in 1989.[5] This led to the formation of the Hillsborough Independent Panel, which, in September 2012, concluded that no Liverpool fans were responsible for the deaths, and that attempts had been made by the authorities to conceal what had happened, including the amendment of 164 statements relating to the disaster by the police.[6] The report prompted immediate apologies from Prime Minister David Cameron, the Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police David Crompton, Football Association Chairman David Bernstein and Kelvin MacKenzie, then-editor of The Sun, for their organisations' respective roles.[7]

Chaired by the Bishop of Liverpool, James Jones, the Hillsborough Independent Panel concluded that up to 41 of the 96 who had died might have been saved had some failings been addressed.[8] The report revealed "multiple failures" by other emergency services and public bodies which contributed to the death toll. In response to the panel's report, Attorney General for England and Wales, Dominic Grieve MP, confirmed he would consider all the new evidence to evaluate whether the original inquest verdicts of accidental death could be overturned.[9]

Before the disasterEdit

File:Sheffield Wednesday FC.jpg

At the time of the disaster, most British football stadiums had high steel fencing between the spectators and the playing field in response to both friendly and hostile pitch invasions. Hooliganism had affected the sport for some years, and was particularly virulent in England.[10] From 1974, when these security standards were put in place, crushes occurred in several English stadiums.[11]

A 1978 report commissioned for a safety certificate for Sheffield Wednesday was completed by Eastwood & Partners. It concluded that although the stadium failed to meet the recommendations of the Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds (the Green Guide) the consequences were minor and of Hillsborough it said "it should be emphasised that the general situation was satisfactory compared with most grounds".[3]:67

Risks associated with confining fans in pens were highlighted in the Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety at Sports Grounds (the Popplewell inquiry) after the Bradford City stadium fire in May 1985, which made recommendations on the safety of crowds penned within fences,[12] including that "all exit gates should be manned at all times ... and capable of being opened immediately from the inside by anyone in an emergency".[13]

Warning signsEdit

Hillsborough Stadium was a regular venue for FA Cup semi-finals in the 1980s, hosting five matches. A crush had occurred there during the 1981 semi-final between Tottenham Hotspur and Wolverhampton Wanderers, after hundreds more spectators were permitted to enter the terrace than it could safely accommodate, resulting in 38 injuries, including broken arms, legs and ribs.[4] This prompted Sheffield Wednesday to alter the layout at the Leppings Lane end, dividing it into three separate pens, restricting sideways movement. It was divided into five when the club was promoted to the First Division in 1984. Serious overcrowding was observed at the 1987 semi-final between Coventry City and Leeds United. A Leeds fan described disarray at the turnstiles and "no steward or police direction inside the stadium" resulting in the crowd in one enclosure becoming so compressed that he was unable to raise and clap his hands.[14] Liverpool and Nottingham Forest had met at the same stage of the competition at the same ground in 1988 and many fans reported crushing in the Leppings Lane end, leading to Liverpool lodging a complaint before the 1989 FA Cup Semi-Final. One supporter contacted the Minister for Sport complaining "The whole area was packed solid to the point where it was impossible to move and where I, and others around me, felt considerable concern for personal safety". Another wrote later to the Football Association: "As far as I am concerned, when there is a large crowd entering this part of the ground (Leppings Lane), it will always be a death trap."[15]

DisasterEdit

Build-upEdit

File:Hillsborough Stadium Plan.png

As is common at domestic matches in England, opposing supporters were segregated. Nottingham Forest fans were allocated the South and East ends (Spion Kop) with a combined capacity of 29,800, accessed by 60 turnstiles spaced along two sides of the ground. Liverpool supporters were allocated the North and West ends (Leppings Lane), holding 24,256 fans, accessed by 23 turnstiles from a narrow concourse. Although Liverpool had a larger fan base, Nottingham Forest was allocated the larger area, the reason being to avoid the approach routes of rival fans crossing. Because of the stadium layout and the segregation policy, turnstiles that would usually have been used for Liverpool supporters to enter the ground were unavailable. Kick-off was scheduled for 3:00 pm and fans were advised to take up positions fifteen minutes beforehand. On match day, radio and television advised fans without tickets not to attend.[16]

Three special trains transported Liverpool supporters to Sheffield for a match fixture in 1988, whereas only one train ran in 1989.[17] Many supporters wished to enjoy the day and were in no hurry to enter the stadium prematurely. Some supporters were delayed by roadworks while crossing the Pennines on the M62 motorway which resulted in minor traffic congestion. Between 2:30 pm and 2:40 pm, there was a build-up of supporters eager to enter the stadium before the game commenced in the area outside the turnstiles facing Leppings Lane.[4]

A bottleneck developed with more fans arriving than could be safely filtered through the turnstiles before 3:00 pm. People presenting tickets at the wrong turnstiles and those who had been refused entry could not leave the area because of the crowd behind them but remained as an obstruction. Fans outside could hear cheering as the teams came on the pitch ten minutes before the match started and as the match kicked off, but could not gain entry. A police constable radioed control requesting the game be delayed, to ensure the safe passage of supporters into the ground. The request was received but declined.[18]

With an estimated 5,000 fans trying to enter through the turnstiles and increasing safety concerns, the police, to avoid fatalities outside the ground, opened a large exit gate (Gate C) that ordinarily permitted the free flow of supporters departing the stadium. Two further gates were opened to relieve pressure. After an initial rush thousands of supporters entered the stadium "steadily at a fast walk".[19]

File:Hillsborough disaster outside.jpg

The crushEdit

When the gates were opened, thousands of fans entered a narrow tunnel leading to the rear of the terrace into two overcrowded central pens, creating additional pressure at the front of the terrace. Hundreds of people were pressed against one another and the fencing by the weight of the crowd behind. People entering were unaware of the problems at the fence; police or stewards would usually have stood at the entrance to the tunnel and when the central pens reached capacity would have directed fans to the side pens, but on this occasion they did not, for reasons not fully explained.[2] A BBC TV news report stated that if police had positioned two police horses correctly, they would have acted as breakwaters directing many fans into side pens, but on this occasion, it was not done.

For some time, problems at the front of the pen went unnoticed, except by those affected, as attention was absorbed by the match. At 3:06 pm the referee, Ray Lewis, on the advice of the police, stopped the match after fans had begun climbing the fence onto the pitch in an effort to escape the crush. By this time, a small gate in the fencing had been forced open and some fans had escaped via this route, as others continued to climb over the fencing. The police attempted to stop fans who had climbed over the fence from getting onto the pitch. Other fans were pulled to safety by fans in the West Stand above the Leppings Lane terrace. The intensity of the crush broke the crush barriers on the terraces. Holes in the perimeter fencing were made by fans desperately attempting to rescue others.[2]

File:Hillsborough disaster.jpg

Those trapped had been packed so tightly in the pens that many of the victims died of compressive asphyxia while standing. The crowd in the Leppings Lane Stand rapidly overspilled onto the pitch where many injured and traumatised fans who had managed to climb to safety congregated. Police, stewards and members of the St. John Ambulance service were overwhelmed. Many uninjured fans assisted the injured; several attempted CPR and others tore down advertising hoardings to use as stretchers.[2]

As the events unfolded, some police officers were still deployed making a cordon three-quarters of the way down the pitch, with the aim of preventing Liverpool supporters reaching the opposing supporters. Some fans tried to break through the cordon to ferry injured fans to waiting ambulances but were forcibly turned back. A total of 44 ambulances arrived but police prevented all but one from entering the stadium.[20]

Only 14 of the 96 fatalities arrived at hospital.[2]

BBC Television's cameras were at the ground to record the match for Match of the Day, but as the disaster unfolded the events were relayed live to the Saturday sports show, Grandstand.

AftermathEdit

A total of 94 people, aged from 10 to 67 years old, died on the day, either at the stadium, in the ambulances, or at hospital shortly after arrival,[21] and 766 fans were injured: around 300 of them were hospitalised.[22] On 19 April, the death toll reached 95 when 14-year-old Lee Nicol – attached to a life support machine – succumbed to his injuries.[23][24] The death toll reached 96 in March 1993, when artificial feeding and hydration was withdrawn from 22-year-old Tony Bland after nearly four years, during which time he had been in a persistent vegetative state and shown no sign of improvement.[23]

Andrew Devine, aged 22 at the time of the disaster, suffered similar injuries to Tony Bland and was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state, but in March 1997 – a month before the eighth anniversary of the disaster – it was reported he had emerged from the condition and was able to communicate using a touch-sensitive pad.[25]

Of the fatalities, 79 were aged 30 or younger, two sisters, three pairs of brothers and a father and son were among them,[21] as were two men about to become fathers for the first time; 25-year-old Steven Brown of Wrexham[26] and 30-year-old Peter Thompson of Widnes.[27] Jon-Paul Gilhooley aged 10, cousin of Liverpool F.C. captain Steven Gerrard, was the youngest person to die in the disaster. Gerrard has stated it was this disaster that inspired him to lead his boyhood team and reach the heights of his career.[28]

ReactionsEdit

Condolences flooded in from across the world, led by the Queen. Other messages came from Pope John Paul II, US President George H. W. Bush, and the chief executive of Juventus amongst many others.[29]

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Home Secretary Douglas Hurd visited Hillsborough on the Sunday after the disaster and met survivors.[30] Anfield Stadium was opened on the Sunday to allow fans to pay tribute to the dead. Thousands of fans visited and the stadium filled with flowers, scarves and other tributes.[29] In the following days more than 200,000 people visited the "shrine" inside the stadium. [31] At Liverpool Cathedral, a requiem mass attended by 3,000 people, was held by the Catholic Archbishop of Liverpool Derek Worlock. The first lesson was read by Liverpool goalkeeper Bruce Grobelaar. Liverpool players Ronnie Whelan, Steve Nichol and former manager Joe Fagan carried the communion bread and wine.[32] David Sheppard, the Anglican Bishop of Liverpool, on holiday on the Scottish island of Barra on the day of the disaster was airlifted by RAF helicopter to attend.

FA Chief executive Graham Kelly, who had been at Hillsborough, said the FA would conduct its own inquiry into what had happened. Speaking after the disaster, Kelly backed all-seater stadiums, saying "We must move fans away from the ritual of standing on terraces".[30] This and the use of perimeter fencing at football grounds, the use of CCTV, the timing of football matches and policing of sporting events were also cited as factors which should be considered in any subsequent inquiry.[33]

UEFA President Jacques Georges caused controversy by describing the Liverpool supporters as "beasts",[34] wrongly believing that hooliganism was the cause of the disaster. His remarks led to Liverpool F.C. calling for his resignation, but he apologised on discovering hooliganism was not the cause.[34]

Disaster Appeal FundEdit

A disaster appeal fund was set up with donations of £500,000 from the Government, £100,000 from Liverpool F.C. and £25,000 each from the cities of Liverpool, Sheffield and Nottingham.[30] Liverpool donated their share of the money they would have received for the game. [29] Within a few days donations had passed £1 million.[31] Fund raising activities included the charity single, Ferry Cross The Mersey performed by Liverpudlian artists, a Factory Records benefit concert and several fundraising football matches. Bradford City and Lincoln City, the teams involved in the Bradford City stadium fire played a game which raised £25,000. By the time the appeal closed the following year it had raised over £12 million.[35] Much of the money went to victims and relatives of those involved in the disaster and provided funds for a college course to improve the hospital phase of emergency care.[36]

Effect on survivorsEdit

By the disaster's 10th anniversary in 1999, at least three people who survived were known to have committed suicide caused by emotional problems brought on by the disaster. Another survivor had spent eight years in a psychiatric unit. Numerous cases of alcoholism and drug abuse were also blamed on the disaster, and it contributed to the collapse of a number of marriages involving people who had witnessed the events.[37]

The Taylor inquiryEdit

After the disaster, Lord Justice Taylor was appointed to conduct an inquiry into the events. Taylor's inquiry sat for 31 days and published two reports, an interim report that laid out the events of the day and immediate conclusions and the final report that made general recommendations on football ground safety. This became known as the Taylor Report.[38] As a result of the report, fences separating fans from the pitch were removed and many top stadiums were converted to all-seated.[39]

File:Hillsborough disaster aftermath.jpg

Police controlEdit

The Taylor report found that "policing on 15 April broke down in the ways already described and, although there were other causes, the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control."[40] There was considerable treatment over some aspects of the disaster; in particular, attention was focused on the decision to open the secondary gates. Taylor concluded that the kick-off should have been delayed, as had been done at other venues and matches.

Stadium design and allocationEdit

Sheffield Wednesday was criticised for the inadequate number of turnstiles at the Leppings Lane end and the poor quality of the crush barriers on the terraces.

Taylor found there was "no provision" for controlling the entry of spectators into the turnstile area. Questioned why more action had not been taken to screen individuals and improve the flow of supporters approaching the stadium from the west "where the turnstile area was so small and awkwardly laid out", senior police officers responded that policy and practice had been no different than in the past, and they had no reason to anticipate problems as earlier events had proceeded without major incident. Taylor noted two occasions when the entry at Leppings Lane had been the sole access to the North and West sides of the ground, at the 1987 and 1988 semi-finals, with evidence of congestion at both, but owing to good fortune and circumstance police policy "was not put to the same test and strain as a year later".

The senior police officers said it had never happened before so there was no reason to foresee it. In fact, the only two previous occasions when the Leppings Lane terraces had been used to fill the whole of the north and west sides of the ground were at the two semi-finals, in 1987 and 1988. In 1987, the match was on a Sunday scheduled for 12 noon, and kick-off was postponed for a quarter of an hour because of late arrivals.[41]

The need to open gate C was due to dangerous congestion at the turnstiles. That occurred because, as both Club and police should have realised, the turnstile area could not easily cope with the large numbers demanded of it unless they arrived steadily over a lengthy period. The Operational Order and police tactics on the day failed to provide for controlling a concentrated arrival of large numbers should that occur in a short period. That it might so occur was foreseeable and it did.[42]

As a result of the inadequate number of turnstiles, it has been estimated that it would have taken until 3:40 pm to get all ticket holders into the Leppings Lane end had an exit gate not been opened. Gate C was opened to let fans in, but the number of fans entering the terrace was not thought to have been more than the capacity of the entire standing area. Once inside the stadium, most fans entering the terraces headed for the central pens 3 and 4, as directed by a large sign above the access tunnel.

Since pens 3 and 4 were full by 2.50 pm, the tunnel should have been closed off whether gate C was to be opened or not. ... [I]t should have been clear in the control room where there was a view of the pens and of the crowd at the turnstiles that the tunnel had to be closed. If orders had been given to that effect when gate C was opened, the fans could have been directed to the empty areas of the wings and this disaster could still have been avoided. Failure to give that order was a blunder of the first magnitude.[43]

For league matches police operating procedure was to fill one enclosure before allowing access to the next.[44] There was no mechanical or electronic means for calculating when individual enclosures had reached capacity. A police officer made a visual assessment before guiding fans to other pens. For the semi-final match a different approach was adopted whereby supporters were allowed to enter any enclosure.[45]

Whilst in theory the police would intervene if a pen became "full", in practice they permitted the test of fullness to be what the fans would tolerate. By 2.52 pm when gate C was opened, pens 3 and 4 were over-full even by this test. Many were uncomfortable. To allow any more into those pens was likely to cause injuries; to allow in a large stream was courting disaster.[46]

The official combined capacity of the central pens was 2,200, but the Health and Safety Executive found this should have been reduced to 1,693 as crush barriers and perimeter gates did not conform to the Green Guide.[47] It is estimated that more than 3,000 people were in the pens shortly after kick off at 3:00 pm. Overcrowding caused the fatal crush.

When spectators first appeared on the track, the immediate assumption in the control room was that a pitch invasion was threatened. This was unlikely at the beginning of a match. It became still less likely when those on the track made no move towards the pitch. ... [T]here was no effective leadership either from control or on the pitch to harness and organise rescue efforts. No orders were given for officers to enter the tunnel and relieve pressure.[48]

The anxiety to protect the sanctity of the pitch has caused insufficient attention to be paid to the risk of a crush due to overcrowding. Certain it was, that once the crush occurred on 15 April gates 3 and 4 were wholly inadequate for rescue purposes.[49]

Lord Taylor regarded spectator allocation irrelevant to the disaster. "I do not consider choice of ends was causative of the disaster. Had it been reversed, the disaster could well have occurred in a similar manner but to Nottingham supporters."[50]

Other aggravating factorsEdit

Accusations that the behaviour of Liverpool fans contributed to the disaster centered around consumption of alcohol before the game and attempts to enter the ground without a ticket. Although Lord Taylor acknowledged that these aggravated the situation, they were secondary factors. Witness estimates of the number of fans who were drunk varied from a minority to a large proportion of the crowd. Although it was clear many fans had been drinking, Lord Taylor unequivocally stated that most of them were: "not drunk, nor even the worse for drink". He concluded that they formed an exacerbating factor.[51]

The possibility of fans attempting to gain entry without or with forged tickets was suggested as a contributing factor. South Yorkshire Police suggested the late arrival of fans amounted to a conspiracy to gain entry without tickets. However, analysis of the electronic monitoring system, Health and Safety Executive analysis, and eyewitness accounts showed that the total number of people who entered the Leppings Lane end was below the official capacity of the stand. Eye witness reports suggested that tickets were available on the day and tickets for the Leppings Lane end were on sale from Anfield until the day before. The report dismissed the conspiracy theory.[41]

Effect on stadiums in BritainEdit

The Taylor Report had a deep impact on safety standards for stadia built in the UK. Pitch-side barriers were removed from most football stadia in Britain. All stadia built for Premier League and most Football League teams since the report are all-seater.[52] The first was Millwall's New Den, which opened in 1993. Chester City F.C.'s Deva Stadium opened the year before, was the first English football stadium to fulfill the safety recommendations of the Taylor Report, although not an all-seater stadium.

Stuart-Smith scrutinyEdit

In May 1997, when the Labour Party came into office, interior minister Jack Straw ordered an investigation. It was performed by Lord Justice Stuart-Smith.[53] The appointment of Stuart-Smith was not without controversy. At a meeting in Liverpool with relatives of those involved in Hillsborough in October 1997, he flippantly remarked "Have you got a few of your people or are they like the Liverpool fans, turn up at the last minute?"[53] He apologised for his remark saying it was not intended to "offend".[53] The terms of reference of his inquiry were limited to "new evidence", that is "...evidence which was not available or was not presented to the previous inquires, courts or authorities."[53] Therefore evidence such as witness statements which had been altered were classed as inadmissible. When he presented his report in February 1998, he concluded that there was insufficient evidence for a new inquiry into the disaster. In paragraph 5 of his summary he said:

...I have come to the clear conclusion that there is no basis upon which there should be a further Judicial Inquiry or a reopening of Lord Taylor's Inquiry. There is no basis for a renewed application to the Divisional Court or for the Attorney General to exercise his powers under the Coroners Act 1988. I do not consider that there is any material which should be put before the Director of Public Prosecutions or the Police Complaints Authority which might cause them to reconsider the decisions they have already taken. Nor do I consider that there is any justification for setting up any further inquiry into the performance of the emergency and hospital services. I have considered the circumstances in which alterations were made to some of the self-written statements of South Yorkshire Police officers, but I do not consider that there is any occasion for any further investigation.[53]

Importantly Stuart-Smith's report supported the coroner's assertion that evidence after 3.15pm was inadmissible as "that by 3.15 pm the principal cause of death, that is, the crushing, was over."[54] This was controversial as the subsequent response of the police and emergency services would not be scrutinised. Announcing the report to the House of Commons, Home Secretary Jack Straw backed Stuart-Smith's findings and said that "I do not believe that a further inquiry could or would uncover significant new evidence or provide any relief for the distress of those who have been bereaved."[54]

Hillsborough Independent PanelEdit

The Hillsborough Independent Panel[55] was installed by the British government to investigate the Hillsborough disaster. On 12 September 2012, it published its report and simultaneously launched a website containing 450,000 pages of material collated from more than 80 organisations over two years.[3]

History of the panelEdit

In the years after the disaster there was a feeling that the full facts were not in the public domain and a suspicion that some facts were deliberately covered up. The Hillsborough Family Support Group, led by Trevor Hicks, campaigned for the release of all relevant documents. After the disaster's 20th anniversary in April 2009, supported by the Culture secretary, Andy Burnham and Minister of State for Justice, Maria Eagle, the government asked the Home Office and Department of Culture, Media and Sport to investigate the best way for this information to be made public.[56]

In December 2009, Home Secretary Alan Johnson announced the formation of the Hillsborough Independent Panel with a remit to oversee "full public disclosure of relevant government and local information within the limited constraints set out in the disclosure protocol" and "consult with the Hillsborough families to ensure that the views of those most affected by the disaster are taken into account".[56] An archive of all relevant documentation would be created and a report produced within two years explaining the work of the panel and its conclusions.

The panel was chaired by James Jones, the Bishop of Liverpool. Other members were:- [57]

Points discussedEdit

One point of contention was that in the original inquest, the coroner, Dr. Stefan Popper, had limited evidence to a cut off time of 3.15 pm, which meant the subsequent response of the police and emergency services was not properly investigated.[58]

FindingsEdit

On 12 September 2012, the Hillsborough Independent Panel[59] concluded that no Liverpool fans were responsible in any way for the disaster, and that the main cause of the disaster was a "lack of police control". Amongst the main findings was that crowd safety was "compromised at every level" and overcrowding issues had been recorded two years earlier. The report concluded that the then Conservative MP for Sheffield Hallam, Irvine Patnick, passed on inaccurate and untrue information from the police to the press.[60][61] The panel concluded that "up to 41" of the 96 who perished may have survived had the emergency services' reactions and co-ordination been improved.[62] The number is based on post mortem examinations which found some victims may have had heart, lung or blood circulation function for some time after being removed from the crush. The report stated that placing fans who were "merely unconscious" on their backs would have resulted in their deaths.[63]

The panel found that South Yorkshire Police and other emergency services had made a "strenuous attempt" to deflect blame from them and onto Liverpool supporters. 164 witness statements were amended, 116 had statements removed which were unfavourable to South Yorkshire Police who carried out blood alcohol readings on the victims, some of them children, and ran computer checks on the national police database in an attempt to "impugn their reputation".[64]

Subsequent apologies were released by Prime Minister David Cameron on behalf of the government,[65] Ed Miliband on behalf of the opposition,[66] Sheffield Wednesday Football Club, South Yorkshire Police, and former editor of The Sun, Kelvin McKenzie, who apologised for writing the headline "The Truth".[67] McKenzie said he should have written a headline that read "The Lies", although this apology was widely discredited by the Hillsborough Family Support Group and Liverpool fans, as it was seen to be "shifting the blame once again."[67]

Labour MP for Leigh, Andy Burnham, a former Secretary of State for Health, who led the campaign for a full inquiry and promised to get results in 2011,[68] thanked the Prime Minister "for every single word" of his statement to the Commons.[69]

MemorialsEdit

Permanent memorialsEdit

A number of memorials have been erected in memory of the victims of the Hillsborough disaster; all are listed below:

File:Hillsborough Memorial, Anfield.jpg
File:Hillsborough Memorial.jpg
  • Flames were added either side of the Liverpool F.C. crest in memory of the 96 who lost their lives.
  • Alongside the Shankly Gates at Anfield, Liverpool's home stadium.
  • A memorial at Hillsborough stadium, unveiled on the tenth anniversary of the disaster on 15 April 1999, reads: In memory of the 96 men, women, and children who tragically died and the countless people whose lives were changed forever. FA Cup semi-final Liverpool v Nottingham Forest. 15 April 1989. "You’ll never walk alone."
  • A memorial stone in the pavement on the south side of Liverpool's Anglican cathedral.
  • A headstone at the junction of Middlewood Road, Leppings Lane and Wadsley Lane, near the ground and by the Sheffield Supertram route.
  • A Hillsborough Memorial Rose Garden in Port Sunlight, Wirral.
  • A memorial rose garden on Sudley Estate in South Liverpool (also known as the APH). Each of the six rose beds has a centre piece of a white standard rose, surrounded by the red variety, named 'Liverpool Remember'. There are brass memorial plaques on both sets of gates to the garden, and a sundial inscribed with the words: 'Time Marches On But We Will Always Remember'.
  • In the grounds of Crosby Library, to the memory of the 18 football fans from Sefton who lost their lives in the Hillsborough disaster. The memorial, sited in a raised rose bed containing the Liverpool Remembers red rose, is made of black granite. It is inscribed 'In loving memory of the 96 football supporters who died at Hillsborough, Sheffield on 15 April 1989. Of those who lost their lives the following young men were from Sefton families'. The memorial was unveiled on 4 October 1991 (before the final death toll reached 96 on the death of Tony Bland) by the Mayor of Sefton, Councillor Syd Whitby. The project was carried out by the Council after consultation with the Sefton Survivors Group.

Memorial ceremoniesEdit

The disaster has been acknowledged on 15 April each year by the community in Liverpool and football in general. An annual memorial ceremony is held at Anfield and at a church in Liverpool. The 10th and 20th anniversaries were marked by special services to remember the victims.

Since 2007 there has been a Hillsborough Memorial service held at Spion Kop, KZN South Africa. The significance of this ceremony is that it is held on the Spion Kop Battlefield which gave its name to the Kop Stand at Anfield. There is a permanent memorial to the 96 fans who died, in the form of a bench in view of the battlefield at a nearby lodge. Dean Davis and David Walters, members of the Official South African Liverpool Supporters Club (Gauteng Branch), are responsible for the service and the bench was commissioned by Guy Prowse in 2008.

Tenth anniversaryEdit

In 1999 Anfield was packed with a crowd of around 10,000 people ten years after the disaster.[70] A candle was lit for each of the 96 victims. The clock at the Kop End stood still at 3:06 pm, the time that the referee had blown his whistle in 1989 and a minute's silence was held, the start signalled by match referee from that day, Ray Lewis. A service led by the Right Reverend James Jones, the Bishop of Liverpool, was attended by past and present Liverpool players, including Robbie Fowler, Steve McManaman and Alan Hansen. According to the BBC report: "The names of the victims were read from the memorial book and floral tributes were laid at a plaque bearing their names."[71] A gospel choir performed and the ceremony ended with a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone". The anniversary was also marked by a minute's silence at the weekend's league games and FA Cup semi-finals.

Twentieth anniversaryEdit

File:Hillsborough anniversary.JPG

In 2009, on the 20th anniversary of the disaster, Liverpool's request that their Champions League quarter-finals return leg, scheduled for 15 April, be played the day before was granted.[72]

The event was remembered with a ceremony at Anfield attended by over 28,000 people.[73][74] The Kop, Centenary and Main Stands were opened to the public before part of the Anfield Road End was opened to supporters. The memorial service, led by the Bishop of Liverpool began at 14:45 BST and a two minutes silence (observed across Liverpool and in Sheffield and Nottingham, including public transport coming to a stand-still)[75][76] was held at the time of the disaster twenty years earlier, 15:06 BST. Sports Minister Andy Burnham addressed the crowd but was heckled by supporters chanting "Justice for the 96".[77] The ceremony was attended by survivors of the disaster, families of victims and the Liverpool team, with goalkeeper Pepe Reina leading the team and management staff onto the pitch. Team captain Steven Gerrard and vice-captain Jamie Carragher handed the freedom of the city to the families of all the victims. Candles were lit for each of the 96 fatalities. Kenny Dalglish, Liverpool's manager at the time of the disaster, read a passage from the Bible, "Lamentations of Jeremiah". The Liverpool manager, Rafael Benítez, set 96 balloons free. The ceremony ended with 96 rings of church bells across the city and a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone".[78]

Other services took place at the same time, including at Liverpool's Anglican and Catholic Cathedrals. After the two minutes' silence, bells on civic buildings rang out throughout Merseyside.[79]

A song was released to mark the 20th anniversary, entitled "Fields of Anfield Road" which peaked at #14 in the UK charts.[80]

Liverpool, Chelsea, Arsenal and Manchester United players showed respect by wearing black armbands during their Champions League matches on 14 and 15 April.

On 14 May, more than 20,000 people packed Anfield for a match held in memory of the victims. The Liverpool Legends, comprising ex-Liverpool footballers beat the All Stars, captained by actor Ricky Tomlinson, 3–1. The event also raised cash for the Marina Dalglish Appeal which contribute towards a radiotherapy centre at University Hospital in Aintree.[81][82]

With the imminent release of police documents relating to events on 15 April 1989, the Hillsborough Family Support Group launched Project 96, a fundraising initiative on 1 August 2009. At least 96 current and former Liverpool footballers are being lined up to raise £96,000 by auctioning a limited edition (of 96) signed photographs.

On 11 April 2009 Liverpool fans sang "You'll Never Walk Alone" as a tribute to the upcoming anniversary of the disaster before the home game against Blackburn Rovers (which ended in Liverpool winning 4–0) and was followed by former Liverpool player, Stephen Warnock presenting a memorial wreath to the Kop showing the figure 96 in red flowers.

Tributes from other clubsEdit

The Hillsborough disaster touched not only Liverpool, but clubs in England and around the world.[83] Supporters of Everton, Liverpool's traditional local rivals, were affected, many of them having lost friends and family. Supporters laid down flowers and blue and white scarves to show respect for the dead and unity with fellow Merseysiders.

On 19 April 1989, the Wednesday after the disaster, a European Cup semi final between AC Milan and Real Madrid was played. The referee blew his whistle six minutes into the game to stop play and hold a minute's silence for those who lost their lives at Hillsborough. Halfway through the minute's silence, the A.C. Milan fans sang Liverpool's "You'll Never Walk Alone" as a sign of respect.[84][85] In April 1989, Bradford City A.F.C. and Lincoln City F.C. held a friendly to benefit the victims of Hillsborough. It was their first meeting since the Bradford City stadium fire in 1985 that claimed 56 lives at Valley Parade. Bradford won the match, 3–1.[86]

As a result of the disaster, Liverpool's game against Arsenal was delayed until the end of the season and eventually decided the league title. The Arsenal players brought flowers onto the pitch and presented them to the Liverpool fans around the stadium before the game. Arsenal won 2–0 and claimed the title. In 2006, Celtic F.C. fans produced a banner featuring the Liverpool crest and the Celtic crest with a flame in the middle surrounded by the words 'Justice For The 96, You'll Never Walk Alone' and presented it to the Kopites during their Champions League quarter-finals return leg (vs PSV Eindhoven, 1–0) at Anfield.[87]

Charity singleEdit

In May 1989, a charity version of the song "Ferry Cross the Mersey" was released in aid of those affected by the disaster. The song featured famed Liverpudlians Paul McCartney and Gerry Marsden, frontman of Liverpool based Frankie Goes To Hollywood, Holly Johnson and Liverpool band The Christians. The song was produced by Stock Aitken Waterman and entered the U.K. charts at number 1 on 20th May, staying there for three weeks.[88]

Charges against officialsEdit

InquestsEdit

Inquests into the deaths of those who died proved controversial. Coroner Stefan Popper limited the main inquest to events up to 3:15 pm on the day of the disaster – nine minutes after the match was halted and the crowd spilled onto the pitch. Popper said this was because the victims were either dead, or brain dead, by 3:15 pm. The decision angered the families, many of whom felt the inquest was unable to consider the response of the police and other emergency services after that time.[89] The inquest returned a verdict of accidental death.

Relatives have failed to have the inquest reopened to allow more scrutiny of police actions and closer examination of the circumstances of individual cases. Anne Williams, who lost her 15-year-old son, Kevin, appealed to the European Court of Human Rights, on the strength of witness statements that her son showed signs of life at 4:00 pm. Her case was rejected in March 2009.[90]

On 19 April 2009, the Home Secretary Jacqui Smith announced she had requested secret files concerning the disaster should be made public.[91]

On 8 March 2011 the Hillsborough Independent Panel announced it would examine previously hidden documents to determine what took place after the 3:15 pm cutoff imposed during the inquest in 1991. A HIP spokesman said: “We have a wide remit to analyse all documents relating to the context, circumstances and consequences of the tragedy and its aftermath.”[92]

A governmental e-petition attracted over 139,000 signatories on 17 October 2011,[93] and parliament agreed to debate the full release of cabinet documents relating to the disaster to the public.[94]

During a debate in the House of Commons, Labour MP for Liverpool Walton, Steve Rotheram, read out a list of the victims and, as a result, the names were entered into Hansard – the official publication of printed scripts of all House of Commons debates.[95][96]

ProsecutionEdit

A private prosecution was brought against Chief Superintendent David Duckenfield and another officer, Bernard Murray. Prosecutor Alun Jones QC[97] told the court that Duckenfield gave the order to open the gates so that hundreds of fans could be herded on to the already crowded terraces at the stadium. Mr Jones stated that minutes after the disaster, [Duckenfield] "deceitfully and dishonestly" told senior FA officials that the supporters had forced the gate open. Duckenfield admitted he had lied in certain statements regarding the causes of the disaster. Other officers, including Norman Bettison, were accused of manipulating evidence. Bettison was later appointed Chief Constable of Merseyside in controversial circumstances. The prosecution ended on 24 July 2000, when Murray was acquitted and the jury was unable to reach a verdict in the case of Duckenfield. On 26 July 2000, the judge refused the prosecution's application for a re-trial of Duckenfield.

Police disciplinary charges were abandoned when Duckenfield retired on health grounds and because he was unavailable, it was decided it would be unfair to proceed with disciplinary charges against Bernard Murray. Duckenfield took medical retirement on a full police pension.[98][99][100]

Psychiatric injury claimsEdit

Various negligence cases were brought against the police by spectators who had been at the ground but had not been in the pens, and by people who watched the incident unfolding on television (or heard about it on the radio). A case, Alcock v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police [1992] 1 A.C. 310, was eventually appealed to the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords and was an important milestone in the law of claims of secondary victims for negligently inflicted psychiatric injury. It was held that claimants who watched the disaster on television/listened on radio were not 'proximal' and their claims were rejected.

Another psychiatric injury claim was brought to the House of Lords, White v Chief Constable of the South Yorkshire Police [1999] 2 A.C. 455. It was brought by police officers on duty against the Chief Constable who was said to have been vicariously liable for the disaster. Their claims were dismissed and the Alcock decision was upheld. It affirmed the position of the courts once again towards claims of psychiatric injuries of secondary victims.

ControversiesEdit

The Sun newspaperEdit

File:Hillsborough disaster Sun.jpg

On 19 April, four days after the disaster, Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, a British tabloid newspaper with national distribution owned by Rupert Murdoch, used "THE TRUTH" as the front page headline, followed by three sub-headlines: "Some fans picked pockets of victims", "Some fans urinated on the brave cops" and "Some fans beat up PC giving kiss of life".

The newspaper cited the words of unnamed police sources and a Conservative MP – later revealed to be Irvine Patnick, the MP for Sheffield Hallam – for information relating to the alleged incidents.[101][102] The Daily Express also carried Patnick's version, under the headline "Police Accuse Drunken Fans" and giving Patnick's views, saying he had told Margaret Thatcher, while escorting her on a tour of the ground after the disaster, of the "mayhem caused by drunks" and that policemen told him they were "hampered, harassed, punched and kicked". [103]

The story accompanying the headlines claimed "drunken Liverpool fans viciously attacked rescue workers as they tried to revive victims" and "police officers, firemen and ambulance crew were punched, kicked and urinated upon". A quotation, attributed to an unnamed policeman, claimed a dead girl had been "abused", and that Liverpool fans were "openly urinating on us and the bodies of the dead".[104] These allegations contradicted the behaviour of many Liverpool fans, who helped security personnel stretcher away a large number of victims and gave first aid to many of the injured.[105]

In their history of The Sun, Peter Chippendale and Chris Horrie wrote:

As MacKenzie's layout was seen by more and more people, a collective shudder ran through the office (but) MacKenzie's dominance was so total there was nobody left in the organisation who could rein him in except Murdoch. (Everyone in the office) seemed paralysed – "looking like rabbits in the headlights" – as one hack described them. The error staring them in the face was too glaring. It obviously wasn't a silly mistake; nor was it a simple oversight. Nobody really had any comment on it—they just took one look and went away shaking their heads in wonder at the enormity of it. It was a 'classic smear'.

After The Sun's report, the newspaper was boycotted by most newsagents in Liverpool and many readers cancelled orders and refused to buy it from newsagents. The Hillsborough Justice Campaign organised a less successful national boycott that had some impact on the paper's sales, which some commentators considered a reason for continued price cuts, the introduction of free magazines, and video and free DVD offers.[106] The issue was addressed on the documentary Alexei Sayle's Liverpool on BBC Two[107] when it covered the subject of Hillsborough. The segment saw comedian Alexei Sayle with a newsagent attempting to give away copies of The Sun, but every customer declined. Eventually, Sayle and the newsagent took the copies outside and set them alight.

MacKenzie explained his actions in 1993. Talking to a House of Commons National Heritage Select Committee, he said: "I regret Hillsborough. It was a fundamental mistake. The mistake was I believed what an MP said. It was a Tory MP. If he had not said it and the Chief Superintendent (David Duckenfield) had not agreed with it, we would not have gone with it."

MacKenzie repudiated the apology in November 2006, saying he apologised because the newspaper's owner, Rupert Murdoch, ordered him to. He said, "I was not sorry then and I'm not sorry now".[108] MacKenzie refused to apologise when appearing on the BBC's topical Question Time on 11 January 2007.[109]

The Sun apologised for its treatment of the Hillsborough disaster "without reservation" in a full page opinion piece on 7 July 2004, saying it had "committed the most terrible mistake in its history" by publishing it. It was responding to criticism of Wayne Rooney, a Liverpool-born footballer who played for Everton, now for Manchester United, who had sold his life story to the newspaper. Rooney's actions incensed Liverpudlians still angry with the newspaper whose apology was somewhat bullish, saying the "campaign of hate" against Rooney was organised in part by the Liverpool Daily Post & Echo, owned by Trinity Mirror, owners its arch-rivals. The apology angered some Liverpudlians further. The Liverpool Echo did not accept the apology, calling it "shabby" and "an attempt, once again, to exploit the Hillsborough dead".

File:The Sun Liverpool.jpg

On 6 January 2007, during Liverpool's FA Cup match at Anfield, fans in the Kop held up coloured cards spelling out "The Truth" and chanted "Justice for the 96" for six minutes at the start of the game. The protest was directed at Kelvin MacKenzie, The Sun, and the BBC for employing MacKenzie.

Many people in the Liverpool area continue to reject The Sun as a matter of principle, and its sales figures in Merseyside are poor. Its articles are not published on Liverpool's official website. In 2004, its average daily circulation in Liverpool was 12,000 copies a day.[110] Some Liverpudlians refer to the paper as The Scum.[101]

The controversy was referred to at the 2009 Labour Party conference. On 30 September 2009, after the decision by The Sun to switch support to the Conservative Party in advance of the 2010 general election, Union Leader Tony Woodley ripped up a copy saying "In Liverpool we learnt a long time ago what to do."[111]

Subsequent articles in The Sun have said hooliganism was not a cause of the disaster; on the 20th anniversary an article by journalist Mike Ellis condemned the 1991 inquest verdict of death by misadventure as "tosh" and claimed that "death by negligence would have been a more accurate description".[112]

Others in the media pinned the blame partly on Liverpool fans, including the Daily Star, which ran the front page headline "Dead Fans Robbed By Drunk Thugs" on 18 April 1989. The Sheffield Star published similar allegations to The Sun, running the headline "Fans In Drunken Attacks On Police", and the Liverpool Daily Post published an article entitled "I Blame the Yobs".[113]

Anger about The Sun's reporting continues. James Murdoch apologised on its behalf to the phone hacking select committee in 2012.[114]

On 12 September 2012, after the publication of the report exonerating the Liverpool fans, MacKenzie issued the following statement:

Today I offer my profuse apologies to the people of Liverpool for that headline. I too was totally misled. Twenty three years ago I was handed a piece of copy from a reputable news agency in Sheffield [White's] in which a senior police officer and a senior local MP [Sheffield Hallam MP Irvine Patnick] were making serious allegations against fans in the stadium. I had absolutely no reason to believe that these authority figures would lie and deceive over such a disaster. As the Prime Minister has made clear these allegations were wholly untrue and were part of a concerted plot by police officers to discredit the supporters thereby shifting the blame for the disaster from themselves. It has taken more than two decades, 400,000 documents and a two-year inquiry to discover to my horror that it would have been far more accurate had I written the headline 'The Lies' rather than 'The Truth'. I published in good faith and I am sorry that it was so wrong.

Trevor Hicks, chairman of the Hillsborough Family Support Group, rejected MacKenzie's apology as "too little, too late", calling him "lowlife, clever lowlife, but lowlife".[115]

FHMEdit

The November 2002 edition of FHM in Australia was withdrawn from sale and a public apology made in the Australian and British editions, because it contained jokes mocking the disaster.[116] As a result, Emap Australia pledged to make a donation to the families of the victims. Its Australian editor, Geoff Campbell, released a statement: "We deeply regret the photograph captions published in the November issue of the Australian edition of FHM, accompanying an article about the Hillsborough disaster of 1989. The right course of action is to withdraw this edition from sale – which we will be doing. We have been in contact with the Hillsborough Family Support Group and the Hillsborough Justice Campaign to express our deep regret and sincere apologies."[116] The British edition disassociated itself from the controversy, stating: "FHM Australia has its own editorial team and these captions were written and published without consultation with the UK edition, or any other edition of FHM."[117]

Vice-chairman of the Hillsborough Family Support Group, Philip Hammond, said he wanted all football fans to boycott the magazine, saying, "I am going to write to every fanzine in the country – including Liverpool FC's – telling them to ban FHM. People are very upset by it. I think there will be a real boycott." He added it would be like making jokes about the 2002 Bali bombings, in which eight fewer Australians were killed.[117]

EastEndersEdit

In November 2007, the BBC soap opera EastEnders caused controversy when the character Minty Peterson (played by Cliff Parisi) made a reference to the disaster. During the episode car mechanic Minty said: "Five years out of Europe because of Heysel, because they penned you lot in to stop you fighting on the pitch and then what did we end up with? Hillsborough." This prompted 380 complaints and the BBC apologised, saying that the character was simply reminding another character, former football hooligan Jase Dyer, that the actions of hooligans led to the fencing-in of football fans. Ofcom also received 177 complaints.[118]

Charles ItandjeEdit

Liverpool reserve goalkeeper Charles Itandje was accused of having shown disrespect towards the Hillsborough victims during the 2009 remembrance ceremony, as he was spotted on camera "smiling and nudging" team-mate Damien Plessis. He was suspended from the club for a fortnight and many fans felt he should not play for the club again. He was omitted from the first team squad and never played for the club in any capacity again.[119]

Jeremy HuntEdit

On 28 June 2010, following England's departure from the World Cup competition in South Africa, the UK's Culture and Sport Secretary Jeremy Hunt praised the England fans for their behaviour during the competition, saying "I mean, not a single arrest for a football-related offence, and the terrible problems that we had in Heysel and Hillsborough in the 1980s seem now to be behind us." He later apologised and said "I know that fan unrest played no part in the terrible events of April 1989 and I apologise to Liverpool fans and the families of those killed and injured in the Hillsborough disaster if my comments caused any offence." Margaret Aspinall, chairperson of the Hillsborough Family Support Group, asked for a face to face meeting with Mr Hunt before deciding if she would accept the apology.[120]

Alan Davies podcast commentsEdit

In April 2012, comedian Alan Davies was accused of showing disrespect towards the Hillsborough victims due to comments made in an episode of his Arsenal podcast, The Tuesday Club. Commenting on the fact that Chelsea had to play their FA Cup semi final game only 3 days before their UEFA Champions League semi final first leg game against FC Barcelona due to Liverpool's refusal to play on 15 April, Davies said "Liverpool and the 15th – that gets on my tits, that shit." He has since apologised for the remark.

Cracker: "To Be A Somebody" television dramaEdit

In 1994, Liverpudlian scriptwriter Jimmy McGovern used the Hillsborough disaster as an apparent motivation for serial killer Albie Kinsella (played by actor Robert Carlyle) in the plot of "To Be A Somebody", the opening story of the second series of the crime drama Cracker. One of Albie's targets includes a fictional reporter for The Sun, Clare Moody. Albie attempts to butcher Moody in her car during the second act, but she escapes. She is killed at the end of the third and final act when she opens a letter bomb sent by Albie, who has already stabbed to death an Asian shopkeeper, a psychologist, an off-duty police officer and a security guard at a quarry.

It becomes clear during the episode that Kinsella is merely attempting to use the disaster, and the death of his own father, as excuses for his own psychopathic behaviour. This attempt is clearly and explicitly thwarted by the title character, criminal psychologist Eddie "Fitz" Fitzgerald (played by Robbie Coltrane).

"To Be a Somebody" led to a number of complaints; however, McGovern had met with many of the victims' families while researching the episode.[121][122] He went on to write a television drama about the Hillsborough disaster, which was screened in December 1996 on the ITV television network in the United Kingdom.[123]

Hillsborough television dramaEdit

A television drama film, based on the disaster and subsequent events, titled simply Hillsborough, was produced by Granada Television. It was highly praised and won the BAFTA Award for Best Single Drama in 1997. Christopher Eccleston, Ricky Tomlinson and Mark Womack were among the leading actors appearing in the film. It was aired for the first time in 1996, and has aired twice since then, in 1998 & 2009 and aired again in September 2012 on the weekend following the release of the findings of the Hillsborough Independent Panel.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "How the Hillsborough disaster happened". BBC News. 14 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7992845.stm. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 http://hillsborough.independent.gov.uk/repository/report/HIP_report.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Taylor, Lord Justice (15 April 1989). Hillsborough Stadium Disaster Inquiry – Interim Report (Zipped PDF). Retrieved on 22 January 2011.
  5. Conn, David (17 April 2009). "Football: David Conn on Hillsborough". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  6. Owen Gibson, David Conn and Haroon Siddique (12 September 2012). "Hillsborough disaster: David Cameron apologises for 'double injustice'". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  7. "Hillsborough files released: As it happened". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  8. Hillsborough papers: Cameron apology over 'double injustice' BBC News
  9. "Attorney General to consider overturning Hillsborough inquest verdicts". Liverpool Echo. 12 September 2012. http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/2012/09/12/attorney-general-to-consider-overturning-hillsborough-inquest-verdicts-100252-31823481/. 
  10. David Lacey (15 April 1999). "Before Hillsborough fans were seen as terrace fodder. Now they are customers to be wooed and cosseted". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/1999/apr/15/newsstory.sport1. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  11. Deaths and Injuries at Major Accidents at British Football Stadiums. Football Licensing Authority. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved on 11 July 2007.
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  13. Cmd 9710: Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety at Sports Grounds Final Report. The Stationery Office, London. 1986. pp. 62. http://hillsborough.independent.gov.uk/repository/HWP000000170001.html. 
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