A global climate regime is a global framework that aims at regulating the interaction of humanity with the global climate system. After the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, which established the objective of avoiding dangerous human interference with the global climate system, governments' negotiation efforts have focused on operationalizing this goal. The first legally binding result has been the Kyoto Protocol which was agreed upon in 1997 and came into force in 2005, with its First Commitment Period in effect from 2008 to 2012. The 2009 deadline for reaching a post-Kyoto agreement, established at COP13 in Bali in 2007 was missed, and at the end of 2012, the voluntary emissions reductions commitments from the Copenhagen Accord are about to become the de facto global climate regime. A considerable number of proposals for a global climate regime exist, such as Contraction and Convergence, Greenhouse Development Rights, Cap and Share, Nishimura's proposal of a Global Upstream Carbon Market, WBGU's Budget Approach, Kyoto2, an Earth Atmospheric Trust, a Global Climate Certificate System.