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Elmina
—  Town & District Capital  —
Elmina fishing fleet
[[file:Ghana location map.svg
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|250px|Elmina is located in Ghana
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|6x6px|Elmina|link=|alt=]]
Elmina

</div>Location of Elmina in Central Region

Coordinates: 5°05′N 1°21′W / 5.083°N 1.35°W / 5.083; -1.35
Region 22x20px
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Central Region
District Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem
Population (2012)
 • Total 32,819[1]
 • Ethnicity Akan people
Time zone GMT
 • Summer (DST) GMT (UTC)

Elmina is a town that is the capital of Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem district, a district in the Central Region of Akanland, Ghana. It lies on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean, about 12 km (7.5 mi) west of Cape Coast. The first European settlement in West Africa, Elmina now has a population of about 33,000 people.[1]

History

In 1478 (during the War of the Castilian Succession), nearby the Elmina waters, was fought a large battle between a Castilian armada of 35 caravels and a Portuguese fleet for the hegemony of the Guinea trade (gold, slaves, ivory and black pepper). The war ended both with a Portuguese naval victory and the official recognition by the Catholic Monarchs of the Portuguese sovereignty over most of the African territories in dispute (Treaty of Alcáçovas, 1479).[2][3] This was the first colonial war among European powers. Many more would come.

The town grew around São Jorge da Mina Castle, built by the Portuguese Diogo de Azambuja in 1482 on the site of a town or village called Amankwakurom or Amankwa, after that war. It was Portugal's West African headquarters for trade and exploitation of African wealth. The original Portuguese interest was gold but this later expanded to include tens of thousands of slaves channeled through the trading post of Elmina. The location of Elmina made it a significant site for reprovisioning ships headed south towards the Cape of Good Hope on their way to India. The Dutch West India Company captured it in 1637; in subsequent centuries it was mostly used for the slave trade. The British attacked the town in 1782, but it remained in Dutch hands until 1872, when the Dutch Gold Coast was sold to the British.

Elmina is also home to Fort Coenraadsburg on St. Jago Hill, built by the Portuguese in 1555 under the name Forte de São Tiago, it was used for commerce. In 1637 it was conquered and renamed by the Dutch, after the conquest of Elmina's main castle. Today, Elmina's main industry is fishing.

Twenty-first century

Beginning in 2003, the town of Elmina, along with foreign investors, began The Elmina Strategy 2015, a massive project to improve many aspects of the town, consisting of water drainage and waste management helping to improve the health of the citizens, repairing the fishing industry and harbor of within Elmina, tourism and economic development, improved health services, and improved educational services.[4]

Magnify-clip.png
Panoramic view of Elmina Town. In harbour some fishing boats may be seen. The view is from Elmina Castle (St. George's Castle). The castle on St. Jago Hill is Fort São Jago da Mina (Fort Conraadsburg).

Twin City

List of sister cities of Elmina, designated by Sister Cities International:

Country City County / District / Region / State Date
Netherlands Netherlands 25px Gouda 25px South Holland
United States USA 25px Macon, GA Flag of Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia

External links

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 World Gazetteer online. World-gazetteer.com.
  2. Historian Malyn Newitt: “However, in 1478 the Portuguese surprised thirty-five Castilian ships returning from Mina [Guinea] and seized them and all their gold. Another...Castilian voyage to Mina, that of Eustache de la Fosse, was intercepted ... in 1480. (...) All things considered, it is not surprising that the Portuguese emerged victorious from this first maritime colonial war. They were far better organised than the Castilians, were able to raise money for the preparation and supply of their fleets and, and had clear central direction from ... [Prince] John.” In A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400-1668, Routledge, New York, 2005, p.39,40.
  3. Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius “In a war in which the Castilians were victorious on land and the Portuguese at sea, …” in Foundations of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580, volume I, University of Minnesota Press, 1985, p.152.
  4. http://www.elminaheritage.com/. Elminaheritage.com.

References

Books

Portuguese Empire
Former colonies
Africa: Alcácer Ceguer | Angola | Annobón | Arguin | Asilah | Azemmour | Cabinda | Cape Verde | Ceuta | Fernando Póo | Gold Coast | Guinea (Cacheu, Bissau) | Mazagan | Mogador | Mombassa | Mozambique | Safi | Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué | São João Baptista de Ajudá | São Tomé and Príncipe (São Tomé, Príncipe) | Tangier | Zanzibar

Asia: Baçaim | Cannanore | Ceylon | Cochin| Cranganore | Daman and Diu | Dadra and Nagar Haveli | Hormuz | Macau (Coloane, Taipa, Ilha Verde, Lapa and Montanha) | Malacca | Moluccas (Ambon, Ternate, Tidore) | Muscat | Quilon | São Tomé de Meliapore | Socotra | Timor

Portuguese India

South America: Brazil | Guiana | Nova Colônia do Sacramento

Portuguese colonization of the Americas

Atlantic: Azores | Madeira Islands


Coordinates: 5°05′N 1°21′W / 5.083°N 1.35°W / 5.083; -1.35


Central Akanland
Metropolitan
Municipal Agona West Municipal (Agona Swedru) •
Assin North Municipal (Assin Foso) • Effutu Municipal (Winneba) • Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem Municipal (Elmina) • Mfantsiman Municipal (Saltpond) •
Upper Denkyira East Municipal (Dunkwa-on-Offin)
Ordinary Abura/Asebu/Kwamankese (Abura-Dunkwa) • Agona East (Nsaba) • Ajumako/Enyan/Essiam (Ajumako) • Asikuma/Odoben/Brakwa (Breman Asikuma) • Assin South (Nsuaem Kyekyewere) •
Awutu Senya (Awutu Breku) • Gomoa East (Afransi) •
Gomoa West (Apam) • Twifo/Heman/Lower Denkyira (Twifo Praso) • Upper Denkyira West (Diaso)
Former District(s)

AgonaAwutu/Effutu/SenyaGomoaUpper Denkyira

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Elmina, that was deleted or is being discussed for deletion, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Author(s): MarkMysoe Search for "Elmina" on Google
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da:Elmina

de:Elmina es:Elmina fr:Elmina ko:엘미나 he:אלמינה nl:Elmina ja:エルミナ no:Elmina pl:Elmina pt:Elmina sv:Elmina

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