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Chalilakath Kunhi Ahmed Musliyar Arabic: كنّ احمد الحاج جاللكتis as peerless prodigy Sunni scholar, social servant, poly language scholar Indian state of Kerala. He was born in 1866 under the context which is favorable for Islamic thoughts. He was initiated for many projects which later became the turning points in the history of Sunni history of Kerala.
Chalilakath Kunhi Ahmed Musliyar Haji was born in 1866 (Hijra-1267) at Adrishery, Kerala, India.His father Kala Muhyaddeen Kutti and his relatives were keen on public services and educational field. Due to his habit of travelling on ox (which is in Malayalam known as “kala”) he was known as the Kala Muhyaddeen Kutti. His father was also an acceptable leader in the hearts of the masses. His mother “Fathima” was a daughter of Kunhai Haji known as Chalilakath Kussay Haji, Who were the blossom friend of SAYYID MAMBURAM ALAVI and the famous scholar of Kerala. Growth Ahmed Haji was brought up by his mother herself due the diverse of his parent. He lost paternal affection in his early childhood because of their divorce and he was known as Chalilakath which was his maternal family name. In his house, light of Islamic star had been glittering because of his grandfather Kunhi hajji and his beloved uncles Hassan Musliyar and Abdulla Musliyar maintained the Islamic rules and regulation as much as possible to them strictly.
Chalilakath Haji achieved his primary education In Quran’s Thajveed ( a brief knowledge about the pattern of Quran recitation) from his mother who possessed a good and deep knowledge and led sacred life. When he expressed interest in and enthusiasm in studying, his mother encouraged him to go for further study. His all uncles and brothers were famous in every religious stage and they were conscious to strengthen the Islamic superiority of yore. In this period, Material education was no all about in Kerala. But his eldest brother Kutyamma Sahib admitted him in school of Calicut due the lack of facilities to gain drops of knowledge in home land. There he learnt three languages, Malayalam Sanskrit and English. Ali Hassan also shared his knowledge with Ahmed Haji. After gaining primary knowledge he became a disciple of Ahmed Kutti of Kodancharry who was a disciple of Makah mufthi Ahmed Zainy and also of exponent of ‘’Thufa’’ of Abdul Hameed Sharwani. Later he participated in spiritual classes of Ammmu Musliyar who had been careering out the Darse in ‘’Thiriruagadi’’. After acquiring his spiritual matters from masjid of ‘’Thirurathangoor” and “Makadi” mosque of Calicut, he became a disciple of Abdul Azeez Musliyar who composed the “BADER MOULOOD” and been an unforgettable person in Islamic history. In 1304 of Hijra, he was admitted in Baqiyath Swalihath, Arabic institution in Velloor, Tamil Nadu. Here he served under the leader Abdul Vahab Hazarath, who was the principal and founder of this institution. The great remarkable one of his fortunate is the luminous scholar Muhammad Abdul Jabber and Abdul Azeez were the classmates of Chalilakath Ahmad Haji later he admitted another great Religious institution, ‘Lathfiya Arabic College’, which locates at Vellore itself. The great mystic leader Of Islamic Muhammad Rukhundheen Kadiriya and Sheik Muhammad Abdul Azeez Jaleel were the famous teacher of Baqiyath Arabic collage. He owned skillful and dexterity in astronomy, logical, philosophy, and geometry from Baqiyath itself. Had learnt long period about Fiqh the merits and good deeds of prophet from various scholars in Kerala, here Fiqh meant no much as possible. After he graduated from Lathfiya by gaining a shallowKnowledge during a short 6 years he spent his dishpan life under “Abdul Halim Sahib” in shaban, Higra 1311 to study about astrology at “Advamiaty”, the prominent text which was real under Halim sahib “Risalathul Marideen” . Thus he gained Astrological knowledge which based on the excellent that with tremendous endeavor in Lathfiya periods, he learnt Urdu, Paris, and Tamil languages and he possessed fame as first person that went to Velloor for higher studies
After sipping enough drops of knowledge, he got down to pedagogy field to share his Knowledge with other. Firstly he accepted the traditional pattern of teaching in masjid which was followed by centuries and was known as “Palli Darse” he was invented to Lathfiya Arabic College to strengthen them with knowledge. Unfortunately, he refused their spiritual invention afterwards he started the Pedagogy in “Tharamal mosque” which means attached mosque. This name derived from austral Chalilakath family, because they had hatched the masjid with leaves of palm. He also conducted his famous teaching field in Mayali, Valapattanam, Pulikkal, Vazakkad as well as in Mannarkad. But Darul- Uloom which was found in 1871 by austral “Kayappathothy” family. They had called it as “Thanmiyathul-Uloom. But gradually it became famous as Darul-Uloom. In this period Chalilakath Ahmed Haji did not refused their mystical invention and accepted it eagerly. This it became water shed in Islamic historical change. In this golden chance, he put forward his reformation ideas to Islamic system as he was a “Mudariss” of Vazhakkad. By this endeavor many of people became famous scholar. His services were the significant achievement for growth of Darul-Uloom. There is numerable good deed which derived in his life. But the most important of it were four deeds which were listened by every Reralian of nearly 20th century. Those were eradicating the Kadiyanism, Debuts in direction of Kiblah, Madrasa Movement and reformation in Arabic Malayalam script.
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Brothers and relatives
Family of Chalilakath was living in Thiriruagadi by years. Thus were two main territories in Kerala which became famous lands than other territories of Kerala one was Ponnani which was called as ‘Makah of Kerala’ because no of leaders had originated from this land. Another one was Thiriruagadi which known as scholar who had trying to study to strengthen the Islamic believes and customs without any mistake. Islam arrived in Kerala during the lifetime of Muhammad, thus many people became Muslims. Similarly Chalilakath and Thiriruagadi had a close relationship in history. Buy them Sheik Zainuddeen son of Muhammad was appointed in these prominent areas as Qazi. Gradually Chaliya became staying centre of Qazi of Calicut. So the scholar started to circulate the Islamic reputation in many parts of the Kerala. Some Qazi of Chaliya sends ‘Muhammad Qasmi’ to Thiriruagadi to propagate the Islam. By his efforts many became Muslims in these territories.
Birth of name ‘Chalilakath’
He was scholar who had the society with legally to the peak and principle of culture. Even though Chalilakath kunahmmad Haji was not of Chalilakath not Chalilakath as added to him their offspring but it was by Martial name. As before mentioned, he was the son of Muthathe Kala Muhyaddeen Kutti and Fathima who was the daughter of Sayyid Alavi Moulada’la of Manpuram’s blossom friend and also teacher of Fasal Pookoya (Sayyid) ‘Chalilakath Kussay Haji’ following to their divorce (between father and mother) he had to grow or spend his childhood under his beloved mother Fathima. So she laid the foundation of primary education to her child Ahmed Haji. As history witness that lot of scholar such like Shafee, Malik, Hambalee and Ahmad also grow and gained their primary education under their beloved mother. Chalilakath also resembled to such a pious leaders of Islam. There are three abbreviated form to this name that are ‘C.H’.’M,C,C,’ and C.A. first one means Chalilakath, around one means the relations between mother and father (Muthatt, cala, Chalilakath) and lost one means Chali+Akath . In following days Chalilakath Ahmad Haji’s sons also known with M.C.C. or M.C.C Brothers
Vanishing of glittering star
In his life’s just last days, kalladi moidu Kutti sahib drew his emotion by encouraging him to be in mannarakad masjid. hence forth, he worked in mannarkad masjid until his departure. He had aimed at mannarkad to risen its reputation and fame with highest possible expedition. Moidu Kutti had promised his physically and financial support. But unfortunately, time didn’t wait for him. This venerable leader passed away on Saturday is Safar 5,Hijra 1338(1919).The material body of this veteran leader was carried from Mannarkad to his one land ‘Tirurangadi’ by bullock cart. He was buried in same burial ground in which his uncle Ali Hassan was buried before. Nowadays this grave can be found in Tharammal masjid, Thirurangadi. After his departure, Quran was recited upto40 days in front of his grave. This fact was considered by Moulavi also.
Sayyid Kussay Haji
Sayyid Chalilakath kussay Haji was born for Ali Hassan. He gained knowledge in Tirurangadi as well as in Ponnani. he was the blossom friend of our spiritual leader Sayyid Mampuram Ali Ba’alavi. Therefore his son Sayyid Fazal Koya went to gain knowledge under Kussay Haji. He was also the’kathen’ of Sayyid Mampuram and he called him as ‘Rahiis-u- suvara’.The mystic leader Umar Qazi was classmate of Chalilakath Kussay Haji. He laid to rest on 1280(H).Ali Hassan, Abdulla Musliyar were the sons of Kussay Haji and Fathima who is the mother of Ahmed Kutti Haji was the daughter of Kussay Haji.
Humility of Kussay Haji
One Kussay Haji pleaded Sayyid Mampuram to allow him to visit his house to teach his grand son’Fazal Koya. But he refused his appeal and said that disciple should be send to his teacher. Else the benediction and blessing will lost to his son. This demonstrates his humility and simplicity as the character. Chalilakath kunahmmad Haji also a person of humility and piety.
Pious scholar and his disciples
Chalilakath kunahmmad Haji not only famed by his respected teachers but also he was famed by his dominant oeuvres and pious disciples. He forced him himself to gain the satisfaction and content of his teacher. So he became a luminous leader of Kerala.
The places where he carried out darsas
The foremost disciples of Chalilakath Haji
- Chalilakath Muhammad Haji
- Kuthubi Muhammad Musliyar
- Cherushery Ahmed Kutti Musliyar
- Mohiyadheen of k Kattipa Ruthi
- Andathod kuunahmed Musliyar
- Amanath hasan Musliyar
- Eldest Ahmed Musliyar of cheroor
- P.p; Unni Mohiyaddin Kutti.m
- P.k. Yunis Moulavi
- K.M Moulavi
- E.K. Moulavi
- M.C.C Ahmed Moulavi
- M.C.C Abdul Rahman .m
- E.K Mohyadden Moulavi
Teachers of Chalilakath
Chalilakath was the most respected leader of Kerala scholars. Because the traditional lineage of most Keralites scholars goes to luminous leader of 19th and 20th century ahmed Musliyar of Chalilakath. Most teachers of modern Kerala are the disciples of E.K Aboobaker Musliar known by Shamsul Ulama and Kuthubi Muhammad Musliyar.
chain of his teachers
- His uncle Ali Hassan Musliyar
- Kodancheri Ahmad Kutti Musliyar
- Andathed Ammu Musliyar
- Valappil Abdul Azeez Musliyar
- Hazrath Abdul Vahab.
- Sayyid Muhammad Ruknudheen Kadriya
- Shah Muhammad Abdul Jaleel of Paishava
- Sheik Muhammad Hassan of Ramport
- Sheik Muhammad Afhamullah of Lucknow
- Ahmed Halim of astronomy
Mystic leader Beeran Kutti Musliyar mentions in his text “Sharahu_Thahseeb” فهذه ما ستفعته من شيغي/و الشيخ المشائخ احمد حاجي عفا الله عنه و رحمه it mean that every resolution is gained from scholar Chalilakath Kunahamad Muhammad Musliyar who is our pious leader.
Chalilakath’s reformation did not confined to only sermonizing but he attempted to strength the Islam by his works also as much as he engage in sermonizing. He composed various holy books for various purposes like stimulatory texts for students of his institution and other prominent works for eradicate renovated scholars. Lot of thought provoking texts is derived from his pen.
Some significant oeuvres of Chalilakath
- Hashiyathun ala risalatahin maredeen
- Thufathul ahdaab
- Thasheelul adhaneel ikvaan fi thaleemi sabani hinduathan
- Adhvatul fee qibla
- Kithabul hisab fee ilmil meekath
- Kithabu swarf
- Annahvul kabeer
- Mabadrul qiraa
- Allugathul Arabia
- Thahleemul quran
- Surathul huroof
- Atheedathul baleega fe kathaee davaberial firkathu lkadiyaniya
In explanation of risalathul marideen he abbreviated the opinions of foreign and internal scholars. This was published by his disciple sulaiman, native of mangalore.Nowadays only a few his works are surviving like Atheedathul Baleega Fe Kathaee Davaberil Firkathul Kadiyaniya.
Debate of Inul Qibla
Scholars assert the piety and exactness in their lives. They have been austere in every parts of their life, even they are at stake. Chalilakath also possessed strictness in his life. The event of Inul Qibla witnesses the fear of Chalilakath with Allah. Thus he might has arrived in the summit of progresses (i.e. progress of hereafter lives).After his service in Mayyazi, he was drawn by inspiration of Koyakutti Sahib to Pulikkal. Koyakutti was a pious and mystic scholar of Islam and also his dominant disciple. He in following days settled in Pulikkal masjid. After a few days he examined the direction of Qibla based on Risalathul Marideen. He suspected that did they face to correct direction of Qibla or not?. When he probed it with a great skillfulness, he felt that our masjid also laid a foundation on a wrong path. After some times, he sent his companion to find out the exactness of Qibla direction of adjacent masjid. They were also on the wrong direction. This incident caused to get a flying start in classifying Muslim scholars into two categories. First team argued that which we are in prayer is not the exact direction of Qibla. But only to its part is enough. Another team including Chalilakath Haji insists that from Kozhikode, people should turn their face to south northern part at 22o correctly, otherwise the Namaz became in veil. In the wake of these problems, a famous debate was held at Pulikkal on September 1908 between such a two separate categories of ulama. It became ever mentioned incident in the history of Kerala Muslims.But both parties themselves belayed with a solidarity and tolerance. So we must believe that it was only a warm debate between them. Koyakutti Sahib who invited Chalilakath to Pulikkal turned against him and pious leaders like Kolloly Ahmed Kutti Musliyar, Yusuf Musliyar, and Kutti Yammu of Thittnkara also did so. But Qazi of Kasaragod, Abdulla Moulavi and Hajji’s other disciples backed up him to strengthen this ideas and this unforgettable incident later called as debate or disput of Inul Qibla. To prove his idea, he wrote a holy book known as Al Dahava and thufathul akthab.
Reformation of Arabic-Malayalam script
After the service of Darul Uloom (1909-1914), he went to Chalilakath Valapattanam in order to invitation of Sayyid Imbicha Koya. He stayed at Nallalath for a short period. In this period the educational revolution erupted in every parts of Kerala. Now he felt the need of Arabica- Malayalam reformation to ease the difficulties of students to read books. He began to reform of Arabic – Malayalam script. This moment gave him a opportunity to correct the mistakes of Sayyid Makthi , who also ventured to such a reform. There are so many people who came forward to reform the Arabic- Malayalam script like Sayyid Makthi (1847-1932), Suleiman Musliyar of Alapuza, Abdul Khader Musliyar of Vakkam (1973-1932). But the most considerable and famous reformation in this field belongs to Chalilakath kuunahmed Haji, because all keralites themselves chased and recognized the Chalilakath’s reformation and he was called as reformer of Arabic- Malayalam script. Muhammad Abdul Kareem says that “on Hijra 1137, Chalilakath aimed to reform the latter. He wrote it in book and named it as Thasheel Ul Furooq. This was printed in Malharul Muhimmath on 1312h.
Historians describe that the Muslims of Kerala fetched religious knowledge by three means 1. Serious of sermon 2. Institution base at masjid and this was used for further studies 3. Madrasa style, which is similar to school style. In ancient Kerala, Muslims followed Ponnani model to study religious subjects. By early years of this system was threatened to the rise of innovational system. Initially a slight unsatisfication and discrimination lingered in the minds of Muslims’ scholars. In 1913, January 1, Chalilakath reformed and regulated the Darul Uloom condition with the support of Koyappathoti Muhyaddeen Kutti Haji, he carried out the new system that Darul Uloom various educational condition. He wanted to follow such a reformation and he described his goal through such a reformation. It was the unprecedented reforms and turning point in the Islamic history.
Rules and regulation: in Darul Uloom
He submitted the new syllabus and curriculum to Darul Uloom to strengthen the religious education, he regulated the periods to the Thafseer, Hadeeth, Fiqh, Manthiq, Mahani, Hisab, Tharik (history), geography, Haiath, Handusa, Munalara, Swarf, Nahv, etc… as well as to enlarge their extra ordinary skills in Arabic language both in oration and writing. Also he motivated them to practice in translation Malayalam to Arabic. He punctuated the periods and requested the co-workers to apply his systematic style in these lives also. He introduced attendance system to note the presence of his students and also the vacation system. He brought library system to Darul Uloom. He motivated his student to engage in all stream of education. He also introduced the study of Malayalam grammar to ease their problems. This was steps forward the renovation of Madrasa system.
Chalilakath: a Sunni leader
Chalilakath kuunahmed Musliyar, orator and moral- material educated religious scholar, chased the divine path o Sunni- tradition customs without any doubts. But 20th and 21st centuries innovationist claimed that he himself was the Salafi or Vahabi follower. But these claims have no basics and are only for the sake of fetching famous in the reformation horizon of Kerala Muslims. His reformation of the modern society with his unprecedent skills was the moot point in their claims. There are many such incidents and solid evidences that prove his loyalty towards Sunnism. His lineages and his teachers were the strict followers of prophet’s Sunnath.His father in law was the blossom companion of Sayyid Mampuram(r) and also the teacher of Fazal Pookoya Thangal. He was also the disciple of Vallappol Abdul Azeez Musliyar who composed “Badr Moulood”. There is no any record in his history which explains that he denied “Thavassul” and “Isthigasa” and that he demanded to translate the Kuthuba ceremony. There is no evidence that proves his permission to bring women to masjid and there is no solid evidence to show his denial to recitation of Moulood. By contracts, he participated and took part in much prayer convocation in which Thavassul and Isthigasa were common. He wrote in his composition of Amaliyath about Tharaveeh as 20 Rakath and he claimed that on should tie his hand below the chest and above the naval. In his period, women were not allowed to enter masjids. Dr. Abdul Samad mentions in his book “Islam in Kerala, group and movements in the 20th century” that Chalilakath chased and backed up the Islahi circulator’s arch enemy Yusufunnahuhani. In a nutshell, Chalilakath was a pious follower of kithab and Sunnath.
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