Architectural school of Nakhchivan (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan memarlıq məktəbi) – is one of architectural schools developed in the territory of modern Azerbaijan in medieval ages. The architectural school of Nakhchivan was founded by Ajami Nakhchivani in the XII century. Mausoleums of Yusif ibn Kuseyir (the first in 1162) and Momine Khatun (the second in 1186), constructed by him in Nakhchivan and are a classical type of constructions of this school.
History and peculiarities
Small feudal states were established in the territory of modern Azerbaijan because of weakening of the Caliphate. At that times, in such cities as Barda, Shamakhi, Beylagan, Ganja, Nakhchivan and others were appeared different architectural schools, among which were observed a general similarity of architectural style: styles of Arran, Nakhchivan, Shirvan-Absheron and also Tabriz, which was developed later in the territory of Iranian Azerbaijan.
The first dated monuments of Nakhchivan School belong to the XII century. Among them were tower-shaped mausoleums and also memorial constructions erected for glorification of wealth and power of feudal. Origination of architectural type of the Caucasian tower-mausoleums is dated to ancient times, but it hasn’t been studied sufficiently yet.
Unlike the tower-mausoleums in the southern parts of Iran and some regions of Middle Asia the tower-mausoleums in Azerbaijan have a many-sided and cross-shaped underground mausoleum in terms of burial vault. Such burial vaults have a low and smooth arch. Underground part consists of socle built of a faced stone, the main volume of the tower and a cone-shaped or pyramidal ceiling. The inner part of the towers has the high, frequently many sided space covered with cupola.
- ↑ К. М. Мамед-заде. Строительное искусство Азербайджана
- ↑ Л.С. Бретаницкий.. Архитектура и изобразительное искусство.. Российские универсальные энциклопедии. Брокгауз-Ефрон и Большая советская энциклопедия объединенный словник.. Archived from the original on 2012-04-11. http://www.webcitation.org/66qKxAjWb.
- Академия художеств СССР. Институт теории и истории изобразительных искусств. Всеобщая история искусств. Том 2. Искусство средних веков. Книга вторая. Искусство Ближнего и Среднего Востока. Искусство Азербайджана
- Л.С. Бретаницкий.. Архитектура и изобразительное искусство.. Российские универсальные энциклопедии. Брокгауз-Ефрон и Большая советская энциклопедия объединенный словник.. Archived from the original on 2012-04-11.
- Л. С. Бретаницкий, Б. В. Веймарн. Очерки истории и теории изобразительных искусств. Искусство Азербайджана
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