File:High fortifications on the north-west.jpg

Anandpal Tomar or Anangpal I or Bilan Dev Tomar (731-36 A.D.) was a Chandravanshi Kshatriya, descendant of great king Parikshit. He was the first ruler to make ancient Indraprastha, modern day - Delhi his capital. Anangpal I, a chief of Tomara/Tanwar dynasty, who according to Harihar Nivas Dwivedi came from central-south India. Tomars briefly ruled at Ujjain after decline of the Raja Bhoj's dynasty. Anangpal I built his capital in Indra-prastha which was rebuilt in 731-36 AD. The Tomars, like most chiefs of that era, were nominal chiefs under the Gurjar-Pratihar Dynasties. His descendant - Anangpal Tomar II again rebuilt it in 1052 AD.[1] The last Tomar ruler - Anangpal Tomar III was succeeded by his grandson Prithviraj Chauhan (1164 - 1192 AC) who was killed in a battle with the Turks at Tarain in AD 1192. From then onwards, Muslims ruled Delhi.[2]

Anangpal II

Anangpal Tomar II ruled Delhi in the mid-eleventh century.[3] He gave Mihirawali (now Mehrauli) name to modern Delhi which means path of Mihir.[4] In middle of 11th century, he built a fort called Lal Kot (literally Red Fort), in which the Qutb Minar stands today, and founded a town. He also removed the famous Iron pillar of Delhi on which are inscribed the eulogies of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (r. 375–415 CE), probably from Mathura, and set it up in 1052 CE, near a group of temples.[5] He also built the Yogmaya Temple nearby. The Tomar dynasty od Delhi lasted just a century after this, as after him, came his son, Ausan Singh (Tejpal) and then his grandson Kosal Dev Singh(Mahipal), when in 1151 CE, it was taken over by Visaldev or Bisaldeo, a Chauhan chief of Ajmer in a matrimonial alliance. Bisaldeo's grandson, the famous Prithvi Raj Chauhan (1149-1192 CE), rename the Lalkot fort as Qila Rai Pithora, and ruled both Delhi and Ajmer, and built the city which bore his name at the former place.[6]


Anangpal Tomar was a Kshatriya of the Pandava-clan and a descendant of Arjuna.

Ancestors of Anagpal I

Som to Yudhishthir

  1. Som (Chandra): Son of Rishi Aatri, the son of Sri Brahma. His mother's name was Bhadra. According to Bhadrapuraan Somavansh Varnan, Soum abducted the wife of Guru Brahspati named Tara and they had a child named Budh.
  2. Budh: Son of Soum and Tara, he married the daughter of Suryavanshi Manu named Illa. According to Matsya Puraan he had great knowledge of Aarthashastra and Hasthishastra, and he was also known by the name Rajputra.
  3. Pururva: His mother helped him to get the kingdom of Prathistapur. In his reign he helped Indra to defeat the Asura king Keishi of Harinyapur. After this battle Indra presented him Urvashi. He and Urvashi had 6 sons according to Vaayu and Vishnu Puraan named, Aayu, Aamavashu, Vishvashu, Shrutaayu, Shataayu and Aayutaayu. Peururva was killed by Brahmvankshi rishi's Kushvajra
  4. Aayu: First son of Pururva, he married the daughter of Sarvabhanu (Rahu), Prabha and had four sons named, Nahush, Kshatravradha, Rambh, Rajji, and Anena.
  5. Nahush: He married a women named Veerja.
  6. Yayati: Aayu's first son Yati became saint and went to jungles so his second son Yayati sat on the throne. He married twice one with the Devayani, daughter of Shukracharya and the other Sharmistha, daughter of Asura king, Vrashparva. He was a very brave and powerful king of his time.
  7. Puru: Yayati gave the major part of his kingdom to his beloved son Puru. Puru married Pausthi. His generation was known by the name Paurav.
  8. Janmejaye Ist
  9. Praachinvaan
  10. Praveer
  11. Manushya
  12. Abhyad
  13. Sudhanva
  14. Bahugavi
  15. Sanyaati
  16. Anhyaati
  17. Roudrashav
  18. Richeyu
  19. Matinaar
  20. Sumati
  21. Illin
  22. Dushyant: He is the famous king of Aryan History, Shakuntla and Lakshmanawere his wives. He went for hunting in Kanv rishi ashram and met Shakuntala there, they both fell in love and married.
  23. Bharat: He was a very brave right from his childhood, he used to count teeths of lions in his childhood. He was very powerful and became Chakravarti samraat holding almost all the parts of India.
  24. Bhumanyu: He was the famous king of Paurav vansh. He had four sons, Vrahatshatra, Nara, Garg and Mahaveerya. Narga and Garg took other caste and there generation was called Kshatropate Brahamans. Mahaveerya Kula latter also become Brahamans.
  25. Vrahatshatra
  26. Suhotra
  27. Hasthi - founded Hastinapur
  28. Aajmeed
  29. Riksh Ist
  30. Samvarna
  31. Kuru: He established Kurukshetra
  32. Abhishyant
  33. Parikshit I
  34. Janmejay II
  35. Surath
  36. Vidurath
  37. Riksh IInd
  38. Bhimsen
  39. Prateep(Paryashrava): He sat on throne after Bhimsen. Along with his wife, Sunanda he sat near Ganga for meditation as they had no kids. In the old age they were blessed with three sons named Devapi, Shantanu and Vahlik and later one younger daughter named Rohini who was married to Yadav Vasudeva. Devapi went to Forests in his younger age and Vahlik sat on the throne when Prateep went for Vanprastha.
  40. Shantanu: He was te father of very famous personality of all times Bhisma on whom we all are so proud of. Shantanu married Ganga, but ganga used to throw all his kids in river ganga, as she had taken some oath to do so, but when this kid Devarath (Bhism) was born Shantanu asked her not to do that. Hence Ganga took him with her and grown Devarath, she not only gave Devarath the teachings for Vaida but also of all weapons known at that time. Devarath came back to his father at tha age of 20. At that time Shantanu fell in love with a girl named Stayawathi and wanted to marry her, but that girls father but a condition that he can marry her only if her sone will sit on the throne instead of Devarath. To fulfill his father's desire, Devarath took a Bhism Oath that he will never marry in his life and left his right on the throne.
  41. Vichitravirya: After death of Shantanu at the of around 72 and 52 years of reign, Vichitraveerya sat on the throne.
    1. Bhisma: After an early death of Vichitravirya Bhisma took care of the kingdom of Hastinapur for around 20 years as the Dhratrashtra and Pandu were too young at that time.
  42. Paandu: At an age of 19 or 20 he sat on the throne, as his elder brother Dhratrashtra was blind since his childhood. Paandu married Kunti, daughter of Vasudeva's father named Sura and was Buwaji of lord Krishna. The king Kunti Bhoj adopted Kunti as his daughter so, she was also known to be daughter of Bhoj. Paandu's second wife was Maadri, the sister of King Saalva. Paandu has five sons, three; Yudhister, Bhima, Arjun from Kunti and two; Nakul and Sehdeva from Maadri.
    1. Dhratrashtra: Dhratrashtra was blind since his birth so Pandu sat on the throne, but Paandu left to Vanprastha (where he died later). To take care of law and order situation, Dhratrashtra was made king of Hastinapur by Bhisma. Dhratrashtra married Gandhari, daughter of King Subal of Gandhaar. They had 100 children and among them Duryadhana was the eldest one, Duryodhana was younger to his cousin Yudhister.
  43. Yudhister: Dhrarashtra divided his kingdom among Yudhister and his son Duryodha. Yudhister was given the kingdom of Indraprastha and Duryodhana was given Hastinapur.

Mahabharatha During the reign of Yudhister and Duryodhana the famous Mahabharatha happened between Kaurava(Duryodhana) and Paandava (Yudhister). During this war when Arjun saw his great grandfather Bhishma in front of him against him, he threw away his weapons. After that lord Krishna gave him the famous *Gita-Upadesha, preaching from Lord Krishan about life. Which is so much relevant even in today's scenario.

Yudhishthir to Kshemaka

About 30 Emperors belonging to the House of Yudhisthira ruled collectively for 1,770 years, 11 months and 10 days: The following is the list of Rulers and Years of Reign (Year, month, day)[7]

  1. Yudhisthira 36 Years 8 Months 25 Days
  2. Parikshita 60 Years 0 Months 0 Days
  3. Janamejaya 84 Years 7 Months 23 Days
  4. Ashwamedha 82 Years 8 Months 22 Days
  5. Rama II 88 Years 2 Months 8 Days
  6. Shataneek/ChhatraMala 81 Years 11 Months 27 Days
  7. Chitraratha 75 Years 3 Months 18 Days
  8. Dushtashailya/Dhritimaan 75 Years 10 Months 24 Days
  9. Ugrasena 78 Years 7 Months 21 Days
  10. Shurasena 78 Years 7 Months 21 Days
  11. Bhuvanapati 69 Years 5 Months 5 Days
  12. Ranajita 65 Years 10 Months 4 Days
  13. Rikshaka 64 Years 7 Months 4 Days
  14. Sukhdeva 62 Years 0 Months 24 Days
  15. 'Nruharideva 51 Years 10 Months 2 Days
  16. Suchiratha 42 Years 11 Months 2 Days
  17. Shurasena II 58 Years 10 Months 8 Days
  18. Parvatasena 55 Years 8 Months 10 Days
  19. Medhavi 52 Years 10 Months 10 Days
  20. Sonachira 50 Years 8 Months 21 Days
  21. Bhimadeva 47 Years 9 Months 20 Days
  22. Nriharideva 45 Years 11 Months 23 Days - he was in 9th generation of Bhuvanapati, so few Kings in between are younger brothers and not sons.
  23. Purnamala 44 Years 8 Months 7 Days
  24. Karadavi 44 Years 10 Months 8 Days
  25. Alammika 50 Years 11 Months 8 Days
  26. Udayapala 38 Years 9 Months 0 Days
  27. Duvanamala 40 Years 10 Months 26 Days
  28. Damata 32 Years 0 Months 0 Days
  29. Bhimpala 58 Years 5 Months 8 Days
  30. Kshemaka 48 Years 11 Months 21 Days

From Kshemaka to Kandha

From Kshemak (last Tomar king of Indraprastha and direct descendant of Parikshit) to Anangpal I:[8][9]

  1. Kshemak
    1. Prince Vijayarka, left the country with his brother (or nephew) - Somendra (Shunkh).[10]
      1. Vishnuvardhan - moved South to Godavari and split the country with his cousin Uttungabhuja (Tunga), settled at Dharampuri on western bank of Gadavari and 400 villages and towns were under his rule.[10]
  2. Shunkhpal (Somendra) - Kshemak's seat was usurped by his minister (Shunkhpal may have been son of Pradyot, who was a son of Kshemak).
  3. Tungapal - quitted upper India and took refuge in Southern India established small kingdom - River Tungbhadra named after him.[10][11][12]
  4. Abhanga (Nanda) - married daughter of Chola King of Kanchivaram, founded Nandagiri. Fought with his cousins and imprisoned his nephews.
  5. Javalpal (Vijaypala) - was founder of Muganda-Patna by some accounts.
  6. Gawal (Somdeva) - whose cattled grazed between Godavari and Krishna.[13] He was driven out by Cuttack Balahara Prince. Somdeva was slain at his capital Kondar. His queen was saved by Madhav Sarma Brahmin at place called Anumakonda.,[13] Gwalior was later established on his name at Gopanchal mountain range.
  7. Lorepind,[12] He was throned in Saka Samvat 230[14] at Anumakonda after fighting and taking it back from Cuttak Balahara Prince.
  8. Adangal
  9. Ganmel, fought with King of Cuttauk.[15]
  10. Nabhang (Narbahangpal), destroyed an army of Turks and received 80 Lakh coins.[15] Nalrudra of Cuttack attacked him and received 20 Lakh coins from him. Some sources state that NArbahanpal was seventh in descent from Maharaj Suraj who was 15th in descent from Indar-dhaman (Killer of King Indra) who was son of Rananjaya, a son of Kshemaka. Thus Nabhang or Narbahangpal was 22nd in descent from Kshemak. He supported republic form of governance.
  11. Chukkar, his maternal uncle was his regent and conquered Maharashtra, Yavana, Gurjara and other chiefs. He also conquered Anga, Banga, Lata, Chola, Nepal, Pandya Pulinda. Prayed to Kakati Goddess and did Putramesti Yagnya (sacrifice) to obtain a son.[15]
  12. Tome (Prolraja Kakati or Tumra-pal), killed Kataka Billana ( Cuttack Balahara ) or Raja of Cuttuck and established his son on throne there, he erected Pagodas at Gangapuram and Hidimbeshwar, 3 Miles from Anumagonda. He build great temple - the Parisavedi linga devalaya with 1000's of Pagodas dedicated to Lord Siva, Shakti and Ganapati.[16] Some sources give 22 generations between Kshemak and Tumrpal (Tome) and give his ruling period around 445 BC. He married Rashtravar Kanakpal's daughter Yashoda. His sons were Shivraj, Bhojraj, Punjraj, Chandraraj. Punjraj fought with Alexander's army.
    1. Punjraj married Yashodhara, the daughter of Anangpal Chauhan, their son was Giriraj. His 5th generation saw Veerbhan ruling and in 143 BC (2958 Yudhishtir Samvat) he too held religious meeting with all, like Tumrapal (Tome) did, to guide the society.
      1. Veerbhan's 11the in descent was Mangalpal and his son was Pratap-pal (Gopsad). Pratap-pal was nominal chief of Hastinapur region around 560 AD.
  13. Dravyadan Tomar
  14. Drugya Tomar
  15. Manbha Tomar
    1. A younger son Achaldev settled at Oosait in central India (M.P.) and his great grand son was Dholandeo Tomar who established Dholpur.
  16. Kaarwal Tomar
  17. Kalang (Kandha) Tomar, he was a local chieftain in kurudesh (modern haryana).
    1. Some sources put Kandha as son of Pratap-pal, the son of Mangalpal and his brothers ruled north Indian states.
  • Kandh's brothers were:
    1. Jatpal (Jatu Tomars are his descendants), Sompal, Veerpal (from same mother).
    2. From other queens of Pratap-pal : [Tanvarpal, Rekpal, Mahipal],[ Sankalppal, Ugrapal, Vishaypal, Karvpal], [Pahushpal, Lodhpal], [Harpal, Jungbhavpal, Samudrapal].
      1. Jungbhavpal did Ashwamegh Yagnya from Lahore (his capital) and in 655 AD came back to Hastinapur. His 6th in descent was Brahmpal whose son was Maharaj Patanpal who founded Patan - south of Delhi in 828 VS / 885 AD. His 8th descendant was Sang-pal whose sons were Rajpal and Veerpal.Veerpal was adapted by Raja Nihaalji of Gadh Nard. Veerpal's 11th in descent was Raja Prithviraj who had 14 queens and 32 sons (hence the name - Tanwar Battisi). His seventh in descent was Lakhji or Lakshmanji whose title was Rao.

Anangpal and his progeny

  1. Anangpal I - son of Kandha, re-established Tomar rule at what is now Delhi, the ancient capital of his ancestors. AD 736 - March- xx, Ruled 18Yrs
  2. Vasudev - AD 754 - March - xx, Ruled 19Y-1M-18D
  3. Gangeya (Gangdev) Tuar - AD 773-Apr-18, Ruled 21Y-3M-28D
  4. Prithvipal - AD 794-Aug-16, Ruled 19Y-6M-19D
  5. Jagdev or Jaydev - AD 814-Mar-05, Ruled 20Y-7M-28D
  6. Narpal - AD 834-Nov-03, Ruled 14Y-4M-09D
  7. Udaysangh (Udayraj) - AD 849-Mar-12, Ruled 26Y-7M-11D
  8. Jaidas
  9. Vachhal/VrikshPal - AD 897-Jan-01, Ruled 22Y-3M-16D. There were many brothers / uncles of Vacchal Tuar.[17]
    1. Bacchdev, founded Bagor near Narnol and Bachera and Baghera near Thoda Ajmer.
    2. Nagdeo[17] s/o Karnpal Tuar and brother of Vachhal dev, founded Nagor and Nagda near Ajmer. Karndeo Tuar himself established Bahadurgarh near Alwar.
    3. Krishnray[17] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Kishangarh near Ajmer and Khas Ganj between Etah and Soron.
    4. Nihal Ray[17] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Narayanpur near Alwar.
    5. Somasi[17] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Ajabpur between present day Alwar and Jaipur
    6. Harpal[17] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Harsola and Harsoli near Alwar.
  10. Pavak - AD 919-Apr-22, Ruled 21Y-6M-05D.
  11. Vihangpal - AD 940-Oct-27, Ruled 24Y-4M-04D.
  12. Tolpal - AD 961-Mar-01, Ruled 18Y-3M-15D.
    1. Gopal - either another name of Gopal or ruled on his behalf for a while.
  13. Sulakshanpal - AD 979-Jun-16, Ruled 25Y-10M-10D.[18]
  14. Jaipal Tuar - 1005-Apr-26, Ruled 25Y-10M-10D. - Younger brother of Sulakshanpal Tuar. As a prince and representative of King of Delhi, he fought with Amir Subaktegin of Gazni ( the predecessor of Md. Gazni ) as head of 100,000 horse and 200,000 foot soldiers, accompanied by Chauhans of Ajmere, Chandela's of Kalinjer and Gahadaval's (Rathore's) of Kannouj. Also referred to as Great Jaipal Tuar-the king of Delhi and Lahore.[19] Fought with Raja Rangatdhwaj Gahadavala (Rathore) and lost sovereignty of Kannauj. His weakness due to the wars with Gahadvala ruler's ensured a brutal attack by Md. Gazni and he lost Mathura to Md. Gazni in 1018 and in 1021 AD Lost Kannauj to Md. Gajni[20][21][22] and paid tribute to him for not attacking Indraprastha. Also called Vijaypal Tuar in some inscriptions. His daughter married Raja Salivaahan Bhati of Jaisalmer whose progeny was Baland Bhati.
    1. His Younger Brother Jhetpal Tuar captured Paithan and his descendants are called Pathania Rajputs.
  15. Kanvarpal/Kumara[20] Pal Tuar - 1021-Aug-29, Ruled 29Y-9M-18D.(Masud, grandson of Md. Gazni, captured Hansi briefly in 1038), ruled from Bari[23] in Awadh, which was 3 days south of Kannauj.
    1. His Rajya Purohit, the chief priest, was Indrachandra whose descendant was Ramchandra 'Rammya', Samrat Hemu's nephew and General in his army.[24]
  16. Anangpal II or AnekPal or Anaypal - 1051-Jun-17, Ruled 29Y-6M-18D.(1052 inscription on the Iron pillar at Mahrauli), populated Delhi and built Lalkot[25] or Old Fort of Delhi.[23]
    1. Bhumpal Tomar, younger son - AD 1081, Settled in Narwar area (Near Gwalior)
    2. Indrapal,[26] founded Indra Garh
    3. Rangraj,[26] founded two palaces by the name of Taragarh, one near Ajmer.
    4. Achal Raj, founded Achner between Bharatpur and Agra.
    5. Draupad, lived in Hansi
    6. Sisupal, founded Sirsa, Siswal (also called Sirsa Patan)
    7. Surajpal, Suraj Kund in Mehrauli Delhi was built by him.
    8. Beejpal, settled in Buhana, his descendants ruled the Tanwar ka Illaqa.[27]
  17. Tejpal - AD 1081-Jan-05, Ruled 24Y-1M-06D, founded Tejora between Gurgaon and Alwar. Built Shiv Temple at Agra called Tejomahal.
  18. Mahipal/Junhpal - 1105-Feb-11, Ruled 25Y-2M-23D. Mahipal captured Hansi and Sthaneshwar (modern day Thanesar)from Madud, grandson of Md. Gazni.[28]
  19. Dakatpal (Arkpal or Anangpal III) - 1151-Jul-19, Ruled 1192 till the Capture of Delhi by Md. Ghori, Titular head only, lost to Someshwar dev Chauhan of Ajmer in 1152 and married daughter to Chauhan king and thus became a feudatory of his Chauhan son in law and later his grandson Rai Pithora of Ajmer. Prithviraj Chauhan was proclaimed the heir of Tomar Kingdom in AD 1170 and his rule was 22Y-2M-16D.
    1. Govindraj Tanwar fought for Prithviraj Chauhan and was killed in battle with Md Ghori.


Anangpal III- He gave his throne to his grandson Prithviraj Chauhan and later went down south near Chambal river. After the fall of Delhi his descendants spread to various regions. He had three sons:

  1. Rao Salivaahanji - his descendants ruled at Torawati - Patan, he fought many battles against the sultans of Delhi.
  2. Rao Ajmalji - his descendants settled at Pokhran and Jaisalmer and one of them was Baba Ramdevji, a deity in Rajasthan from Runicha village.
  3. Rao Sohanpal ji, he ruled from Asa-Morena and his descendant later ruled Gwalior

Tomars under Man Singh Tomar also rebuilt the great fort of Gwalior to balance the administration activity between north and central India. Gwalior fort was eyed by Babur as well post occupation of Delhi which he described said as pearl of Central India. Delhi, Gwalior, Chittorgarh & Kannauj were major administrative centers of Rajputs prior to Muslim invasion. After defeat in Second Battle of Tarain (Muhammad of Ghor defeating Prithviraj Chauhan) and successive major blow by defeat in Battle of Khanwa (Babur defeating Rana Sanga and Gujjar allies) Rajputs suffered huge losses in life and kingdoms. Some converted into vassal states and even converted to Islam to avoid death. Rajputs were pushed south and eastwards post these battles & occupation by Turks & Mughals. Some were later evolved as Marathas in south western India. Tomars are now concentrated near Gwalior in MP & in Rajasthan as Tanwars.

History shows that Rajputs were named for their royal lineage i.e. sons of kshatriya kings and rulers. Modern day Rajputs, Gurjars, Jats, Ahirs and Yadavs all were kshatriyas as per the varna system of Hinduism, however over a period of time elite kshtriyas became rulers and called got Rajputs lineage / name.

Some Kshtriyas in northern India under control of Mughals split from rajputs and classified themselves as Gurjars as their main activity was now farming and cattle grazing. Kashtriyas who still worked served as soldiers under vassals & Hindu kings maintained their rajput status. Northern India (Punjab, Haryana, northern Rajasthan & Western Uttar Pradesh) bear most war prone atmosphere and Hinduism mere got limited to lower varna as upper varnas were killed or lost control of society to Mughals.

See also

Further reading

  • Lalkot to Lodi Gardens: (Delhi of Sultans), by Ranjit Sinha. Published by South Asia Books, 1996. ISBN 81-7167-237-X.


  1. William Crooke (1890). An ethnographical hand-book for the N.-W. provinces and Oudh. North-Western provinces and Oudh government press. p. 178. 
  2. D. C. Ahir (1989). Buddhism in north India. Classics India Publications. p. xvi. ISBN 81-85132-09-7. 
  3. Khushwant Singh. City improbable: an anthology of writings on Delhi. Viking. ISBN 2001. 
  4. Jats and Gujars: origin, history and ... - Google Books
  5. Gazetteer, p. 233
  6. Gazetteer, p. 234
  7. Satyartha Prakash By Swami Dayanand Saraswati
  8. Alexander Cunnigham, Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 1, page 149
  9. Pratap Charitra, a book on kakatiya kings
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Benjamin Lewis Rice, Mysore and Coorg: Mysore, by districts, page 16
  11. William Taylor, Oriental historical manuscripts in the Tamil language, Volume 2, page 81
  12. 12.0 12.1 Shri Ariṣaṇiphāla Veṇkatạcharya, YajvāViswaguna darsana: or, Mirror of mundane qualities, Appendix - page 155
  13. 13.0 13.1 Colin Mackenzie, Horace Haymen Wilson, "Mackenzie collection: a descriptive catalogue of the oriental ..., Volume 1, Government Oriental Manuscripts Library", page 127 (Tamil Nadu, India)
  14. Ariṣaṇiphāla Veṇkatạcharya Yajvā, Viswaguna darsana: or, Mirror of mundane qualities, Page 3
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Shri Ariṣaṇiphāla Veṇkatạcharya, YajvāViswaguna darsana: or, Mirror of mundane qualities, Appendix - page 158
  16. Shri Ariṣaṇiphāla Veṇkatạcharya, YajvāViswaguna darsana: or, Mirror of mundane qualities, Appendix - page 5
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33, Page xxi
  18. Prafulla Chandra Roy, The coinage of northern India, page 99
  19. Shoshee Chunder Dutt, Historical studies and recreations, Volume 2, page 201
  20. 20.0 20.1 Prabhakar Begde, Ancient and mediaeval town-planning in India
  21. Shomshee Chunder Dutt, The great wars of India, page 70-90
  22. Sir Edward Thomas, "The Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Delhi, illustrated by coins", page 57
  23. 23.0 23.1 Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33
  24. M.L.Bhargava,Hemu and his time, page 3
  25. Alexander Cunnigham, Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 1
  26. 26.0 26.1 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33,Asiatic Society of Bengal
  27. Financial Commissioner -Amin Chand, , Report on the revised land revenue settlement of the Hissar District of the Punjab (India) 1875. Page 3
  28. Prafulla Chandra Roy, The coinage of northern India, page 91
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