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Japan is the one of the most affected country by natural disaster. It had 2 in record in top 5 most expensive natural disasters in history costing $181 billion in year 2011 and 1995 only. Plus, Japan also been listed in 10 worst natural disasters of 21st century caused by Mother Nature. The types of Natural Disaster in Japan include tsunamis, floods, typhoon and volcanoes. Nature disaster is a major adverse resulting from natural processes in the earth. It can cause loss of life and property damage which will affect Japan's economy, development and social life. This sunrise state has gone through many years of Natural Disaster. Top 3 of them are , volcano eruption, typhoon and earthquake.

Volcano Eruption

Over 10 percent of the world's active volcanoes are located in Japan. They are formed when one oceanic plate under Japan subducts beneath another ocean plate. The subducted plate heats as it subducts, and melted material rises towards the surface, causing a volcano .

File:Sakurajima at Sunset.jpg
File:Lava Lake Nyiragongo Volcano.jpg
Location Last eruption
Mount Meakan, Hokkaido
2008
Mount Usu, Hokkaido
2001
Hokkaido Koma-ga-take, Hokkaido
2000
Mount Asama, Honshu
2009
Mount Hakkoda, Honshu
1997
Mount Niigatayake, Honshu
1998
Mount Yake, Honshu
1995
Oshima, Izu Islands
1990
Tori-shima, Izu Islands
2002
Miyake-jima, Izu Islands
2010
Mount Aso, Kyushu
2004
Mount Kuju, Kyushu
1996
Mount Sakura-jima, Kyushu
2012
Shinmoe-dake, Kyushu
2011
Mount Unzen, Kyushu
1996
Kikai Caldera, Osumi Islands
2004
Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands
2012
Fukutoku-Okanoba, Bonin Islands
2010
Iwo Jima
1997
Oyama
2005

Typhoon

Japan is an island nation, surrounded by water. Typhoons (called hurricanes in the Western hemisphere) are extreme storms that can ravage the islands with high winds and storm surge. Here some typhoon that hits Japan :

File:ParmaMelor AMO TMO 2009279 lrg.jpg
File:Typhoon Roke (2011) rising Kiso River IV.jpg
Name of Typhoon Year Damage Estimated death
Tropical Storm Aere
2011
$31 million
35
Typhoon Bart
1999
$5 billion
16
Typhoon Bolaven
2012
$475 million
59
Typhoon Chaba
2010
-
-
Typhoon Chataan
2002
$500 million
54
Typhoon Conson)
2004
$3.8 million
2
Typhoon Damrey
2012
$636 million
14
Typhoon Dianmu
2004
$68.5 million
6
Tropical Storm Etau
2009
$87.5 million
28
Typhoon Ewiniar
2006
$1.4 billion
141
Tropical Storm Faxai
2007
$1.5 million
1
Typhoon Fengshen
2002
$4 million
5
Typhoon Fitow
2007
$1 billion
3
Typhoon Guchol
2012
$100 million
3
Typhoon Haikui
2012
$2.09 billion
105
Typhoon Jangmi
2008
$240.4 million
6
Typhoon Jelawat
2012
$27.4 million
3

Earthquake

Japan has had a long history of earthquakes catastrophe and seismic activity. Here's a list of 20 years major earthquake recorded in Japan.

File:JAPAN EARTHQUAKE 20110311.png
File:Hanshin-Awaji earthquake 1995 346.jpg
Name of Typhoon Year Damage Estimated death
Tropical Storm Aere
2011
$31 million
35
Typhoon Bart
1999
$5 billion
16
Typhoon Bolaven
2012
$475 million
59
Typhoon Chaba
2010
-
-
Typhoon Chataan
2002
$500 million
54
Typhoon Conson)
2004
$3.8 million
2
Typhoon Damrey
2012
$636 million
14
Typhoon Dianmu
2004
$68.5 million
6
Tropical Storm Etau
2009
$87.5 million
28
Typhoon Ewiniar
2006
$1.4 billion
141
Tropical Storm Faxai
2007
$1.5 million
1
Typhoon Fengshen
2002
$4 million
5
Typhoon Fitow
2007
$1 billion
3
Typhoon Guchol
2012
$100 million
3
Typhoon Haikui
2012
$2.09 billion
105
Typhoon Jangmi
2008
$240.4 million
6
Typhoon Jelawat
2012
$27.4 million
3

Earthquake

Japan has had a long history of earthquakes catastrophe and seismic activity. Here's a list of 20 years major earthquake recorded in Japan.

File:JAPAN EARTHQUAKE 20110311.png
File:Hanshin-Awaji earthquake 1995 346.jpg
Location Date Estimated death
Hokkaido Earthquake 1993, 12 July
202
Offshore Sanriku Earthquake 1994, 28 December
3
Kobe Earthquake 1995, 17 January
6, 434
Ryuku Island Earthquake 1998, 4 May
0
Geiyo Earthquake 2001, 24 March
2
Hokkaido Earthquake 2003, 25 September
1
Chuetsu Earthquake 2004, 23 October
40
Fukuoka Earthquake 2005, 20 March
1
Miyagi Earthquake 2005, 16 August
0
Kuril Islands Earthquake 2006, 15 November
0
Kuril Islands Earthquake 2007, 13 January
0
Noto Earthquake 2007, 25 March
1
Chuetsu Offshore Earthquake 2007, 16 July
11
Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake 2008, 14 June
12
Izu Islands Earthquake 2009, 9 August
0
Shizuoka Earthquake 2009, 11 August
1
Ryukyu Islands Earthquake 2010, 26 February
1
Bonin Islands Earthquake 2010, 21 December
0
Tohoku Earthquake 2011, 11 March
15, 881
Miyagi Earthquake Aftershock 2011, 7 April
4
Fukushima Earthquake Aftershock 2011, 11 April
6
Fukushima Earthquake Aftershock 2011, 10 July
0
Izu Island 2012, 1 January
0
[Earthquake] 2012, 7 December
0
Chiba Earthquake 2012, 14 March
0

What is Earthquake?

Earthquake is the vibrations caused by rocks breaking under stress. The underground surface along which the rock breaks and moves is called a fault plane. Over time, stresses build beneath the earth’s surface. Occasionally, stress is released resulting in the sudden, and sometime disastrous shaking we call an earthquake. Earthquake can cause shaking that could last seconds or minutes. Besides that, there may be several earthquakes over a period ranging from hours to weeks called foreshocks and after the shocks, the magnitude will decreasing with time. It is important to know the earthquake magnitude because it can be the clue if there any aftershock. Because of that magnitude can be measured on the Richter scale, invented by Charles F. Richter in 1934. The Richter magnitude is calculated from the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded for the earthquake, no matter what type of wave was the stronger. Through twenty years, the most severe earthquake happens within 20 years in Japan is in Tohoku.

What Causes Earthquake?

File:Fault types.png

An earthquake is a sudden tremor or movement of the earth’s crust, which originates naturally at or below the surface. There are 2 main causes of earthquake. First, they can be linked to explosive volcanic eruption; they are infected very common in areas of volcanic activity where they either proceed or accompany eruptions. Seconds, they can be triggered by tectonic activity associated with plate margins and fault. Usually, the major case of earthquake in the world wide is this type included at Tohoku, Japan. Japan becomes the fifth most powerful earthquake in the world. Indeed, Japan is places at the Pacific Ring of Fire, a geologically active zone where the tectonic plates in the Earth’s crust rub against each other. In the Pacific Ocean off Japan's east coast, the Pacific Plate is being pushed down into the Earth's interior, a process called subduction. The Pacific Plate moves 3.5 inches (8.9 centimetres) a year, but that movement isn't continuous. Instead, pressure builds as the tectonic plates stick against each other. When the plates finally give, the amount of energy released can be tremendous. That is what happened with the Japan quake, which originated 231 miles (373 kilometres) northeast of Tokyo and 80 miles (130 km) east of Sendai, Honshu. The sudden movement shifted the seafloor, creating the tsunami. Offshore, a tsunami is barely a ripple, albeit one that is travelling hundreds of miles per hour. As the tsunami hits the coast, it slows and grows in height, unleashing a wave that usually looks more like a massive flood. In 9 March 2011, worlds become traumatic because of the big impact of earthquake happen in Japan.

Types of Earthquake

There are about 13 types of earthquake happen all around the world. There are :

  1. Aftershock
  2. Blind thrust earthquake
  3. Doublet earthquake
  4. Foreshock
  5. Harmonic tremor
  6. Interplate earthquake
  7. Intraplate earthquake
  8. Megathrust earthquake
  9. Remotely triggered earthquakes
  10. Slow earthquake
  11. Submarine earthquake
  12. Supershear earthquake
  13. Tsunami earthquake
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