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2011–present Libyan inter-factional fighting
Part of the Aftermath of the Libyan civil war
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As early as December 2011, milita disarmament rallies took place such as this one in Tripoli, Libya on 7 December
Date 1 November 2011–present
(6 years, 3 months, 3 weeks and 1 day)
Location Libya
Status Ongoing
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tensions between Tripoli and Benghazi over Cyrenaica/Barqa autonomy
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detention and alleged human rights abuses of 7,000 alleged pro-Gaddafi prisoners and foreign migrants[1][2][3]
  • Destruction of Sufi shrines, mosques and mausoleums by Salafist militias
  • Attacks on foreign diplomatic missions in Benghazi and Tripoli by Islamist militias
  • Several militias disbanded and routed by the NTC[citation needed]
  • Systematic targeting and killing of dozens of senior security officers in Benghazi by unknown gunmen
Belligerents
Flag of Libya.svg Libyan National Army / Ministry of Interior
  • National Mobile Forces
  • Supreme Security Committee

Government sanctioned local militias

Multiple local militias
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Gaddafi Loyalists

Islamist militias


Commanders and leaders
Fawzi Bukatef
Amrajaa al-Mesheiti
Ismail Sallabi[14]
Salahadeen Bin Omran
Mohammed al-Garabi
Hakim Buhagir
Ajmi al-Atiri
Salem al-Aawar
Abu Oegeila al-Hebshi

Salim Derby[15]
Mohamed Ali al-Zahawi


Colonel Salem al-Wa'er[16]

Strength
35,000

February 17th Martyrs Brigade: 1,500-3,000[17]
Rafallah al-Sahati Brigade: 1,000[17]

1,371–1,397 killed on all sides[citation needed]
(including 187–189 civilians, four Americans and one Nigerien soldier)
2011–present </br>Libyan factional fighting
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During the Libyan civil war, brigades of armed volunteers sprang up around the country, reporting to local military councils, which became de facto local governments. Civilian leaders say that, after the declaration of liberation in late October 2011, the militias have shifted from merely delaying the surrender of their weapons to actively asserting a continuing political role as "guardians of the revolution". Some of the largest, and most well-equipped brigades are associated with Islamist groups now forming political parties.[18] Before the official end of hostilities between loyalist and opposition forces, there were reports of sporadic clashes between rival militias, and vigilante revenge killings.[18][19]

Matters came to a head with the U.S. Consulate attack in Benghazi, when a militia attack under the guise of a demonstration succeeded in killing the U.S. ambassador to Libya. This prompted a popular outcry against semi-legal militias that were still operating and resulted in the storming of several Islamist militia bases by protestors.[5][20] A large scale government crackdown followed on non-government sanctioned militias, with the Libyan army raiding several now illegal militia's headquarters and ordering them to disband.[21]

Events

2011

October 2011

On 2 October, Abdullah Naker announced the creation of an armed group, the Tripoli Revolutionists Council (TRC), to keep order in Tripoli. Analysts said such a mission would overlap with the existing Tripoli Military Council (TMC) which is led by Abdelhakim Belhadj. Naker stated that his forces had 22,000 armed men at their disposal and were in control of 75 percent of the capital. He stated his TRC was working under the auspices of Mustafa Abdel Jalil and was "cooperating" with the TMC.[22]

November 2011

On 1 November, a group of intoxicated Zintan fighters stormed a hospital in Tripoli and demanded the hand-over of a fighter who was wounded earlier in the day in a clash that also left another militiaman dead. The doctors refused and a Tripoli militia, in charge of hospital security, forced the Zintanis out, but not before they shot rounds in the hospital. Both groups received reinforcements and the fighting, involving heavy machine guns and anti-aircraft guns, lasted for three hours. There were no direct fatalities from the fighting, but three patients at the hospital died due to stress-related causes linked to the clashes. Three Tripoli fighters were wounded. The fighting reportedly ended after calls from a local imam and senior commanders from both groups talked by phone with their men.[23]

On 8 November, it was evident that loyalist remnants were also still active in the country, even more than two weeks after their defeat, when a pro-Gaddafi convoy tried to cross the border into Niger and were intercepted by the Nigerien army. 13 loyalists and one Nigerien soldier were killed.[24]

Between 8 and 12 November, large-scale fighting erupted between Zawiya and Tripoli between a Zawiya-based militia and a group from the Wershifanna tribe. The Zawiya group accused their opponents of belonging to loyalist remnants and they reported of seeing tanks and vehicles with the Gaddafi-era green flag and markings that said "Brigade of the Martyr Muammar Gaddafi". The Wershifanna denied this and stated that the men from Zawiya had been misled by a rumor that pro-Gaddafi fighters were in the area. The fighting was centered around the former loyalist Imaya military base and both sides vied for control. Grad rocket launchers were used at times during the clashes. 9–12 Zawiya fighters and nine Wershifanna fighters were killed.[25][26]

On 23 November, a militia force in Bani Walid was ambushed after being sent there to arrest a known Gaddafi supporter. 15 militia members were killed. The survivors reported being shot at and hit with grenades and rockets from houses after they found out all the roads were blocked.[27] Another report stated that the fighting started after a high-speed chase with a suspect vehicle in which a Gaddafi loyalist was killed. One civilian also reportedly died during the fighting.[28]

December 2011

In December, a group of armed men dragged Libya's attorney general Abdul-Aziz al-Hassady from his car in broad daylight in Tripoli, threatening to kill him if he didn't release one of their friends who had been arrested on suspicion of murder.[29] Days later, a group of Zintani gunmen attacked the convoy of a top army officer, General Khalifa Haftar, as it was speeding through a checkpoint set up by the group.[30] In a separate incident, gunfire broke out between the army and the Zintan brigade at the Tripoli International Airport.[31][32] On 16 December, Haftar said an armed group had abducted his son, Belgassim, and detained him at the airport.[33]

On 6 December, Libya's interim government announced that, following consultations with Tripoli's local council, it had given militias lingering in the capital until late December to hand over security to the authorities. Officials said residents of Tripoli would convene rallies in support of the initiative to clear the city of weapons and out-of-town fighters. If militias had not withdrawn by 20 December, the authorities and members of the public intended to close the whole city to traffic.[34] By January 2012, the former rebels had dismantled most of their checkpoints, while some key bases still remained.[35]

On 11 December, fighting erupted south of Zintan, between the Zintan militia and members of the El-Mashasha tribe. The clashes started when the El-Mashasha attacked the convoy of a Zintan militia commander, killing him, as he tried to pass through the town of Wamis,[36] around which the tribe was based. The Zintanis retaliated by attacking the town with artillery or rocket fire, hitting houses in residential areas. A mosque and a school were also hit. Over two days of fighting three townspeople were killed.[37][38] By 13 December, a ceasefire was established. Officials from Zintan stated that the fighting was the result of the El-Mashasha killing several residents of Zintan earlier in week.[39]

2012

January 2012

File:Militiasclashtripoli 2012.jpg

On 3 January, four fighters were killed in a gun battle in Tripoli as dozens of fighters from Misrata were trying to seize a group of prisoners being held in a security compound by Tripoli militias.[40] Another report stated that there were two separate gun battles and put the number of dead at seven.[41] In response to the incident, NTC chairman Mustafa Abdul Jalil warned that Libya risked sliding into civil war if the rival militias were not brought under control.[42]

On 14 January, two fighters were killed and 36 were injured after clashes between militias from neighbouring towns of Gharyan and Asbi'a. It was reported that artillery and rockets were used during the clashes.[43] On 15 January, the rival groups carried out a prisoner swap and agreed to a ceasefire.[44] Officials said 12 people had been killed and around 100 wounded on both sides.[45] In the days leading up to the fighting, the Asbi'a commander assigned to Gharyan, Ezzedine al-Ghool, was detained and tortured to death by members of the Gharyan militia. His body was dropped off anonymously at a hospital in Tripoli.[46]

On 20 January, Libya's former ambassador to France died less than a day after he was arrested by a Tripoli militia group. Human Rights Watch said on 3 February, that marks on Omar Brebesh's body suggested he died as a result of torture while he was in detention.[47]

On 21 January, hundreds of rioters broke into the NTC's offices, throwing stones and hand grenades at the complex. They denounced the presence of Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, the number two man in the NTC, calling him an "opportunist", because of the belated point in time at which he switched sides from Gaddafi's government to the opposition during the war. The next day Ghoga resigned from his position.[48]

On 22 January, a new clash broke out in Tripoli when NTC fighters attempted to arrest a former prisoner, charged with murder, who was released by the Gaddafi government at the start of the civil war the previous year. He and his brother took shelter in their home and opened fire on the militia with RPGs and automatic weapons. Both brothers and an NTC fighter were killed and five militiamen were wounded.[49]

On 26 January, the humanitarian aid non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (which had been present in Misrata since April 2011, during the Libyan civil war) announced the suspension of their work in the city detention centres, as detainees were tortured and denied urgent health care.[50] MSF General Director Christopher Stokes stated: "Patients were brought to us in the middle of interrogation for medical care, in order to make them fit for more interrogation. This is unacceptable. Our role is to provide medical care to war casualties and sick detainees, not to repeatedly treat the same patients between torture sessions.".[51] Amnesty International had described two days ago "widespread torture and ill-treatment of suspected pro-Gadhafi fighters and loyalists.", with several detainees dying across Libya in the precedent weeks.[52]

Bani Walid clashes

On 23 January, reports from NTC fighters emerged claiming that Bani Walid had been recaptured by those claiming retribution by NTC forces for allegedly supporting the Gaddafi government. Information from the town about the situation was vague and contradictory at times. The so-called loyalist fighters were said to have captured several entrances to the city and most of the town, roaming freely. The main base of the local NTC militia was surrounded and besieged. The casualty figures varied with initial reports stating that five NTC fighters were killed, while later Bani Walid's major put the death toll at 20–25 on both sides, and finally a doctor at the local hospital put the death toll the next day at eight.[53][54][55] Hours later, another three NTC fighters were killed in a loyalist attack in Benghazi and clashes were reported in Tripoli.[56] On the same day, NTC leader Mustafa Abdul Jalil announced the possibility of another civil war.[57] He also made a similar statement almost three weeks earlier after the Tripoli clashes.[41]

On 24 January, however, tribal elders in Bani Walid expressly denied any loyalist uprising in their town. Instead, the dispute erupted when local leaders decided to expel the NTC military council and militias that had been in control of the town to replace them with their own representatives. No green flags were reported to be flying in the town, and elder Miftah Jubarra stated, "In the Libyan revolution, we have all become brothers. We will not be an obstacle to progress." But he also stated that they would resist any attempt by NTC forces to reassert control over Bani Walid.[58] The following day, the national government recognised the legitimacy of the new tribal leadership of Bani Walid in an effort to maintain peace within the country. The NTC dispatched a "peacekeeping force" composed of units from the region to set up and man checkpoints around the town to contain any further unrest.[59] UN's top diplomat in Libya, Ian Martin, confirmed that the fighting was due to a local dispute and not caused by Gaddafi supporters trying to reassert control over the city.[60]

February 2012

On 1 February, the Zintan and Misrata militias fought a gun battle in Tripoli near 5-star hotels and businesses, while government troops did not intervene.[61]

On 6 February, seven male black Libyan civilians from Tawergha were killed by militias who raided their makeshift refugee camp at a former naval academy in Janzour, a suburb of Tripoli. The survivors said that they appeared to be from Misrata because of their license plates, though the Misrata militia denied this.[62]

On 10 February, Saadi Gaddafi warned that a new uprising was imminent in Libya and that he was ready to come back to Libya.[63]

Kufra clashes

On 12 and 13 February, 17 people were killed and 22 wounded in tribal fighting between the Tobu and Zuwayya tribes in Kufra. Nine were from the Zuwayya and eight were from the Tobu. Initially, only small-arms fire was used in the clashes when they started, but on the second day the situation escalated with RPGs and anti-aircraft guns being used. According to the Zuwayya, the fighting started when a young man from their tribe was killed three days before by three Tobu members. A head of the local NTC militia reported that the Zuwayya man was a smuggler and was killed after he opened fire on a Tobu militia, which was charged with combating illegal trafficking, killing five of the militiamen.[64] The Tobu, on their part, stated that they were being attacked by the Zuwayya, who were supported by the NTC, with the intention of exterminating them. The Tobu claimed discrimination by the Zuwayya, due to them being dark-skinned, on an even higher level than during the Gaddafi-era.[65] Farhat Abdel Karim Bu Hareg, the coordinator of social affairs in the local Kufra government said that they will have to declare independence of the region if the NTC does not act against attacks by mercenaries, referring to Tobu fighters.[66]

On 14 February, representatives of about 100 militias created a federation in an attempt to avoid fighting between militias and pressure the National Transitional Council for further reforms. Leaders of the new federation said they had no formal relationship with the Libyan Ministry of Defence, which is officially tasked with uniting armed elements in the country under a single banner.[67] The same day, clashes continued around Kufra, with the NTC sending reinforcement to help the Zuwayya tribe. Tobu spokesman said that they were besieged and were being heavily shelled by the Zuwayya, and added that it was an attempt to exterminate the Tobu tribe with government participation. An NTC spokesman stated that it was a low-level fight between revolutionaries and weapons smugglers backed by foreign elements. A Tobu member claimed five of his comrades were killed in the new round of fighting, while another stated that there were no deaths, only injuries.[68] The fighting continued, and on 15 and 16 February, another 15 Zuwayya were killed and 45 wounded. The Tobu reported that since the started of the clashes 55 of their members had been killed and 117 wounded, with the wounded not being able to be evacuated via the airport due to it being controlled by the Zuwayya.[69]

On 15 February, Amnesty International reported that at least 12 detainees had been tortured to death while in militia custody.[70]

On 18 February, more clashes in Kufra left another two people dead. At this point, it was reported that the military sent reinforcements to the region, in an attempt to stop the tribal fighting.[71]

On 21 February, a Red crescent worker reported that 50 civilians were killed in the past 24 hours in Kufra due to mortar and rockets being fired on residential area.[72] A spokesman of the Zuwayya tribe said that three people were killed and 25 injured.[73] The leader of the Tobu tribe Issa Abdelmajid, stated that 113 Tobu were killed (including six children) and 241 wounded in 10 days of fighting. For their part, the Zuwayya said 23 of their tribesmen were killed and 53 wounded.[74][75]

On 22 February, a further four people were killed and 10 injured in renewed fighting in the south.[76] NTC leader Abdul Jalil said that Gaddafi loyalists were seeding sedition in Kufra but did not elaborate.[77]

On 23 February, the Libyan National Army was dispatched to Kufra to enforce the peace. Army commandos had reportedly taken control of the airport, city and whole region, according to Zuwayya tribal sources inside the city and both tribes used the renewed peace for evacuation of wounded to Tripoli.[78]

On 24 February, fighting resumed in Kufra, injuring several people, according to both tribes, with each blaming the other for the renewed fighting. A security official from the Zuwayya tribe stated that the army had not done anything to prevent the clashes.[79] Later during the day, a ICRC medic confirmed that fighting de-escalated but the situation remained tense. The ICRC also evacuated 28 wounded patients from both tribes to Tripoli hospital.[80]

On 25 February, a United Nations team started providing relief supplies. Georg Charpentier, an UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Libya and chief of UNSMIL mission, confirmed that a ceasefire between the tribes was holding with the Libyan army contingent in place to prevent further clashes.[81] NTC chairman Jalil urged both tribes to make peace.[82]

March 2012

On 2 March, the head of the security committee in Derna, Colonel Mohammed Al-Hassi, was shot and killed outside a petrol station in the town. He had previously survived two earlier assassination attempts and was also the head of Derna’s anti-drugs unit. He cracked down hard on local drug smugglers during and before the civil war.[83]

On 6 March, tribal and militia leaders in Benghazi declared unilaterally semi-autonomy for the eastern region of Cyrenaica. This was met with anger from the NTC government in Tripoli and anti-autonomy demonstrations erupted in the capital and Benghazi.[84] On 16 March, a pro-autonomy demonstration was held in Benghazi, which was attacked by unknown gunmen, leaving one person dead and five injured.[85]

File:Anti milita demonstrators Libya March 7th 2012.jpg

On 18 March, a clash erupted between the Zintan militia and residents of Tripoli's Abu Salim district, previously loyal to Gaddafi. One militiaman was killed before a cease-fire was brokered by the district's own militia commander.[86]

On 21 March, unknown assailants threw a grenade at a car filled with ammunition in Derna blowing it up.[87] One week later, on 28 March, an unknown group threw a hand grenade into the courtyard of the Women’s Higher Vocational Centre in Derna.[88]

On 24 March, a member of a Zintan militia in Tripoli was asked by the Rixos hotel to leave over an unpaid bill dating back to September. The militiaman lost his temper and shot twice into the air and broke vases in the lobby. Then, other members of his group stormed in and abducted the hotel's Turkish manager, taking him away. The manager was released a few hours later, after an intervention by the Turkish embassy with the NTC government.[89] However, by that point, the man was tortured and had lost his ability to hear in one ear.[90]

Sabha clashes

Late on 25 March, clashes erupted in the southern city of Sabha, between Arab and Toubou tribesmen, after a man from the Abu Seif tribe was killed in a dispute over a car by the Toubou. The fighting was, at first, mainly on the city outskirts. However, it than spread to the city's main streets and black plumes of smoke could be seen rising from Sabha's airport on 26 March. Initially seven people were reportedly killed and another seven wounded. However, later reports put the death toll at 20 with another 40 people wounded. The Tobu stated that the Abu Seif attacked their negotiation team outside a government building while they were in route to talk about reconciliation.[91][92][93]

On 27 March, the fighting in Sabha continued and the toll was reported to had reached 49 dead, with 15 of the killed being from the Tobu and the rest from Abu Seif. Tobu militiamen had reportedly advanced into the center of the city and their snipers had taken up positions, inflicting a number of casualties.[94]

On 28 March, the fighting briefly eased off with reports of a ceasefire, but quickly escalated again. By the end of the day the toll had reached more than 70 dead and 150 wounded, 40 of the dead being from the Tobu.[95]

On 30 March, ceasefire was negotiated between the Council of Elders of Libya, Sabha local council and members of the Misrata militia in the southern city. According to it, Tobu tribesmen are to withdraw from all areas and recognize the authority of the national army which would take control of all security operations in the south and on the borders. In return, the Tobu will be returned all property in Libya and there will be an investigation into the conflict. Moreover, local militias would be integrated into either Army or Ministry of Interior forces.[96] However, the fighting re-ignited the next day once again.

On 31 March, the Tobus, after being pushed back south of the city, launched a counter-attack in a bid to re-enter the town. 16 people were killed, eight from each side, and more than 50 wounded.[97] The Libyan health minister announced that 147 people had been killed and 395 wounded, up to the night before, since the start of the fighting in Sabha.[98]

April 2012

Zuwara clashes

On 1 April, 21–34 Zuwara militiamen were detained by members of a neighboring town's militia. The Ragdalein fighters stated that they captured the men after months of abuses by a Zuwara brigade, including the looting of property. For their part, the Zuwara local council head accused Ragdalein to be a hub of Gaddafi loyalists.[99] A third version of the events came from the government Interior Ministry which stated that the trouble started when a Zuwara hunting party near Al-Jumail shot and killed a person from that town by mistake.[100] The hunters were than arrested but released later. Another Zuwara council head claimed that the men were tortured before being released and stated that Zuwara came under mortar and anti-aircraft fire by militias from both Ragdalein and Al-Jumail.[101]

On 3 April, reports emerged that the fighting in the Zuwara area was still continuing with at least one Zuwara militiaman killed and five wounded. The losses for Ragdalein and Al-Jumail were not known. Clashes were reported at the entrance to Ragdalein while Al-Jumail was shelling Zuwara.[102] At least 14 were killed and 80 injured.[103]

On 4 April, the fighting escalated with the use of tanks and artillery. The reported number of dead was said to had risen to 26, eight from Zuwara and 18 from the outlying towns, and another 142 Zuwarans were wounded.[104][105] Unconfirmed reports rose up the death toll to 48 killed in the clashes.[106]

On 6 April, French leading newspaper Le Figaro reported that a dozen people were killed near Ghat on 1 and 2 April in fighting between former pro-Gaddafi Tuaregs and the Zintan tribe.[107]

On 20 April, fighting restarted in Kufra with 12 people being killed and more than 35 wounded when the Tobu fighters were reportedly attacked by units under the command of the Libyan National Army. The fighting began when a Tobu tribesman was killed by members of the Zuwayya tribe. The battles lasted late into 21 April.[108]

May 2012

On 8 May, protests outside prime minister office turned violent when ex-rebels, which protested on the non-payment of the promised cash handout by the government, attacked the office in Tripoli. One Interior Ministry’s Supreme Security Committee (SSC) guard was killed, while four others, one protester and three SSC guards, were injured.[109][110]

On 15 May, a diplomatic source briefed by Western intelligence officials stated that, beside the tribal rivalries plaguing the country, there was concern about a growing presence of Islamist militants in some areas, specifically the city of Derna. The source said that hundreds of Islamist militants were in and around the town, and there were militant training camps where weapons were also provided. He said one official had described the area as "a disaster zone." Tensions had reportedly grown between local people and the militants. According to the source, the previous month, a number of town residents went to a camp on the outskirts of the city and forced militants to leave. One of the indicators of the militant inter-factional were also the recent spate of car-bombings in Derna. One of the attacks targeted Abdel Hakim al Hasadi, a former member of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group.[111] The same day, two people were killed and a third wounded in inter-tribal clashes in Sorman.[112]

On 16 May, fighting erupted between Tuareg tribesmen and local militiamen over control of a checkpoint on the edge of Ghadames on a desert route often used for smuggling, near the Algerian border.[113] Between seven and thirteen people were killed and more than 20 wounded. Per one local official, except one person, all of the dead were Tuaregs.[114][115]

On 21 May, two members of Tripolis SSC higher security branch were killed by an unknown gang in Janzour. Interior Ministry sources stated that the killings were part of a "personal dispute".[116]

June 2012

On 4 June, around two hundred armed members of Tarhunas Al-Awfiya Brigade stormed Tripolis airport, in protest for the day before kidnapping by Tripolis SSC of their commander, Colonel Abu Oegeila al-Hebshi, and closed the airport for several hours.[117] Later, the assailants clashed with members of the Tripoli Brigade and Zintan Brigade, with the result of ten fighters wounded. Finally, the Al-Awfiya militiamen agreed to withdraw from the airport, according to some sources negotiating a deal with the Tripoli & Zintan militias, according to others by promises of Mustafa Abdel Jalil of help in the search of the missing commander.[118][119]

On 5 June, a bomb exploded outside the gates of the United States consulate in Benghazi, causing only material damages.[120][121] According to the jihadist watch website SITE, the attack was claimed by the "Brigade of imprisoned Cheikh Omar Abdul Rahman" in revenge of the killing of Libyan Al Qaeda member Abu Yahya al-Libi by US drones in Pakistan the day before.[122] In a separate incident, a militia checkpoint in Gwarsha district was attacked and destroyed by the family of a member of the security forces who had been fatally shot earlier by a militiaman at the checkpoint.[123]

On 6 June, one person was shot and killed in Sirte, purportedly by anti-Gaddafi gunmen who thought the man was a loyalist.[124]

On 10 June, fighting flared up again in Kufra. Tobu tribesmen were engaged in clashes with former rebels who had become members of the new Libyan National Army. A Kufra official said the Tobu had launched an attack on the city with tanks and other heavy weapons. A Tobu representative said it was the tribe that had come under attack.[125] He said the fighting had erupted after the former militiamen, known as the Libya Shield Battalion, had shelled the tribe's district. But a local security official said an attack on a security checkpoint in the town triggered the violence. The fighting continued into the next day and at least 23 people were killed. Among the dead were 20 Tobu tribesmen, including at least 15 tribal fighters, and three government soldiers.[126][127]

On 11 June, the convoy of British ambassador to Libya Dominic Asquith was attacked with a rocket-propelled grenade by unknown assailants in Benghazi. While the ambassador and the diplomatic staff were unhurt, two British bodyguards were injured.[128]

Between 11 and 17 June, clashes raged in the town of Zintan. Zintani militiamen were involved in fighting with members of the El-Mashasha tribe, whom they accuse of being Gaddafi loyalists because they did not join the opposition during the civil war the previous year. The fighting reportedly started when a Zintani militiaman was shot and killed at an El-Mashasha checkpoint.[129][130] At the same time, a security patrol came under fire in Sabha, leaving two dead and 10 wounded. Armed clashes also flared anew in Kufra, leaving one dead and dozens injured.[131] After days of clashes, on 17 June, the Libyan government declared the area around Zintan a military zone and sent troops to stop the fighting.[132] The total casualty toll for the fighting in the Zintan area was ultimately stated to be 105 killed and more than 500 wounded. The majority of the dead were reported to be El-Mashasha. The tribesmen accused the Zintan forces of shelling their town, Sheguiga, with tank and rocket fire.[133]

On 20 June, the Sawf Al-Gene Martyrs Brigade, from Bani Walid, ambushed and captured a convoy of 10 vehicles belonging to the Wadi Al-Ajaal National Security Directorate. The convoy’s personnel were captured along with the vehicles and their fate was later unknown.[134]

On 26 June, three people were killed in renewed fighting in Al Kufra. The fighting died down later in the evening.[135] However, the fighting continued late on 27 June and for the next three days another 47 people were killed and 100 wounded. 32 of the dead were from the Tobu tribe, 14 were from the Zwai tribe and one was a government soldier.[136] In Benghazi, retired intelligence officer Colonel Saleh al-Warfali was assassinated in front of his house.[137]

July 2012

On 6 July, a helicopter carrying election material was shot at south of Benghazi killing an election worker.[138]

On 7 July, Libyans voted in their first parliamentary elections since the death of Muammar Gaddafi. The election, in which more than 100 political parties have registered, will form an interim 200-member national assembly. This will replace the unelected National Transitional Council, name a prime minister, and form a committee to draft a constitution. The vote was postponed several times to resolve logistical and technical problems, and to give more time to register to vote, and to investigate candidates.[139] An incident of violence occurred during the elections at Ajdabiya when security forces and anti-election protesters engaged in a gun battle which left one person dead and two wounded.[140]

Two Misratan journalists were arrested by a Bani Walid militia when they illegally entered the town to cover the election. Misrata's military leader gave a 48 hour deadline for their release and threatened to attack Bani Walid. Bani Walid elders said they would release them only in exchange for Bani Walid prisoners held in Misrata.[141] The journalists were held despite a number of negotiations attempting to secure their release. Three Misratan fighters from the Libyan Shield brigade were captured by Bani Walid militiamen after they ventured too far from their checkpoint. Their vehicle came under attack and two of them were reported to be at Bani walid hospital while the fate of the third was unknown.[142] The journalists were released on 15 July in a deal involving the future release of 60 former pro-Gaddafi loyalists originally from Bani Walid.[143]

On 15 July, President of the Libyan Olympic Committee Ahmad Nabil al-Alam was kidnapped by unidentified gunmen in Tripoli.[144] He was later released unharmed on 22 July.[145]

On 28 July, Colonel Bouzyreda Sleiman, a former military intelligence agent who defected to the opposition during the civil war, was shot and killed in Benghazi as he was performing the Taraweeh prayers at the Amer Bin Yas mosque. Other former Benghazi interior security officers, as Abdelhamid Kandouz Ali or non-commissioned officer Ibrahim Al-Arabi, were killed several days before by car bombs.[146][147]

On 29 July, commander of Libyan ground forces Khalifa Hafter escaped an assassination attempt in Benghazi, when his convoy get under fire from unknown assailants. Abdel-Basit Haroun, a Benghazi militia commander, declared that only during the past month thirteen people who had been close to the former government had been killed. Also in Benghazi, a bomb planted at the Tibesti hotel was defused before it could explode.[148]

On 31 July, seven Iranian relief workers guests of the Libyan Red Crescent were abducted by unknown gunmen, near their hotel in Benghazi.[149]

August 2012

On 1 August, clashes in Abu Isa (between Zawiya and Sorman) between armed gangs who were fighting over some vehicles since the day before ended with the intervention of the Libya Shield Force, with a final toll between two and four killed, and five injured.[150]

On 5 August, Hamza Saleh Almismari, a pilot from Buraq Air who had been kidnapped two days earlier and tortured by an unknown gang but then freed, was tracked and killed in front of his family by the gang.[151]

On 10 August, another former Libyan Army officer who was among the first defecting to the opposition, Brigadier General Mohamed Hadia al-Feitouri, was shot and killed in Benghazi. Hadia, then defence ministry official responsible for ammunition and weapons, was returning home from Friday prayers when a group of gunmen pulled up in a car and opened fire on him.[147][152]

On 19 August, two people were killed in a two independent car bomb attacks in Tripoli. They are the first fatal bomb attacks since the fall of the Gaddafi regime.[153] The Libyan Ministry of Interior accused Gaddafi loyalists of carrying out the attacks, while those loyalists using an instant messaging service Paltalk were reportedly listening to the Interior Ministry’s communications network.[154]

On 20 August, the car of Egyptian consulate's first secretary Abdelhamid Rifai was blown up in Benghazi. Security sources stated that no one got hurt.[155]

On 23 August, tribal clashes with heavy weapons (between Awlad Al-Shaikh tribesmen and Zlitenis according to some sources, and between Al-Haly and Al-Fawatra tribes according to others) started in Zliten, killing between three and twelve people, and injuring dozens. In a separate development, Interior ministry spokesman Abdelmonem al-Hur stated that more than a hundred tanks and twenty-six rocket launchers were seized from an alleged pro-Gaddafi militia (named Katibat Al-Awfiyah, or Brigade of the Faithful), during a raid on their campsite in Tarhuna. The operation ended with one of the suspects killed, eight wounded and thirteen detainees, accused of being linked with the 19 August Tripoli bombings.[156][157][158] In Homs, east of Tripoli, a women's hunger strike over conditions at a migrants camp was suppressed by anti-Gaddafi militia members, leaving three Sub-Saharan migrants dead, according to Eritrean Roman Catholic priest Moses Zerai.[159] In Sabha, two African migrants were killed and several others wounded when unknown assailants threw an explosive device at the home where they stayed.[160]

On 24 August, following the deadly clashes of the day before, the shrine of Sufi scholar Sidi Abd As-Salam Al-Asmar in Zliten (which had been target of an earlier attack in March) was destroyed by Salafist groups using a bulldozer and explosives, according to Zlitan military council official Omar Ali and witnesses.[161] The attackers also blown up the mosque attached to it and its library, filmed the events and posted the footage online.[162]

On 25 August, the Al-Shaab Al-Dahmani mosque and shrine in central Tripoli was bulldozed in broad daylight by a group of armed Salafists, including members of the security forces. According to witnesses, when the police came, they prevented people not to approach instead of stopping the demolition, while an anonymous government officer alleged that after a small clash they seal the area to prevent violence spreading. One of the assailants affirmed that the Interior Ministry had authorised the operation after discovering practices of worshipping and "black magic" at the shrine.[163] According to witnesses, the Sheikh Ahmad Zarruq mausoleum in the port of Misrata was also destroyed.[164] On 26 August, several Libyan government officials as President of the General National Congress Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf, or Supreme Military Council spokesman Abdel Moneim al-Hurr condemned the demolition. Deputy Prime Minister Mustafa Abushagur stated on Twitter: “The destruction of shrines and mosques is a crime. Those who commit these crimes will be held responsible… I asked the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence to intervene yesterday but they did not do their duty to protect these sites.”.[165] The Grand Mufti of Libya Sheikh Sadik Al-Ghariani condemned the desecration of graves and holy sites, which he described as “not religiously permissible” and “a violation of the sanctity of the dead”.[166] International non-governmental organizations (like HRW or ANHRI) and UNESCO also denounced the attacks.[167][168]

On 29 August, around two hundred armed Islamists destroyed thirty graves at the Othman Pasha madrassa, a 19th century Turkish school in Tripoli.[169]

Also in August, Shehata Awami, the first elected Benghazi local council governor after the war, renounced to his post after three months in charge, because of death threats and lack of communication with Tripoli's central government.[170]

September 2012

On 2 September, clashes between two rival young men groups in Zawiya for the theft of a car resulted in seven killed and thirteen injured, ending with the intervention of local security forces.[171] The same day, the joint venture between AGOCO and Repsol announced a halt on oil production at the Akakus fields in the Murzuq basin, following an attack on some company personnel by the guards of the complex.[172] In Benghazi, a car bomb exploded in Gamal Abdel Nasser street, at the center of the city, killing a Colonel of the former government security services and wounding the other passenger. While at first Supreme Security Committee spokesman Abdel Moneim al-Hurr said that the driver was carrying the bombing device, he later affirmed that the two men, both intelligence officers, had been the target of the explosion.[173][174]

Between 3 and 4 September, a group of Wershifanna tribesmen located a fake checkpoint at the Zahra bridge, in the road between Tripoli and Aziziya, killing between one and three travellers and kidnapping seven others from the Nafusa mountains. On Tuesday 4, an agreement was made with the group fleeing the checkpoint and releasing the hostages in exchange for the liberation of a Wershifanna man accused of car theft.[175]

On 7 September, a Salafist militia attacked the Sidi Al-Lafi mausoleum in Rajma. In the clashes with local residents that followed, three militiamen were killed and seven people were injured, according to Interior Ministry sources. Finally, the Libya Shield Brigade was deployed to stop the violence.[176] Wisam Bin Hamid, leader of the Libya Shield Force in Cirenaica raised later the injured toll to thirteen, and denied reports that his forces were involved in the attack.[177]

On 9 September, unknown attackers blew up a car outside the Interior Ministry regional offices in Sabha, causing damages in the building but no casualties.[178] One hour later, the Benghazi house of Colonel Wanis Buhamada (commander of army units in Sabha) was attacked with bombs, but no one got hurt.[179]

On 10 September, Air Defense Colonel Badr Khamis Al-Obeidi was killed by unknown gunmen in a drive-by shooting when he was leaving the Saida Aisha mosque in Benghazi.[180]

In Benghazi, in late September, mass protests forced the Islamist militia Ansar al-Sharia to withdraw from their barracks and flee. People in the crowd waved swords and even a meat cleaver, shouting "No more al-Qaeda!" and "The blood we shed for freedom shall not go in vain!" They tore down the banner of group while chanting “no no to the brigades”.[181][182]

11 people were killed during the clashes in Benghazi,[183] including six government soldiers who were found executed outside the city. Militias were blamed for the soldier's deaths. A colonel was also reported missing and feared kidnapped.[184]

At the same time, Essam al Katous, a senior security official reported that Gaddafi loyalists killed 20 militiamen and abducted 30 other from a bus in the southern town of Barek al-Shati where they clashed for several days with a pro-government militia.[184]

On 14 September, Benghazis airport closed because of heavy anti-aircraft fire from Islamist militias aimed to hit United States drones who were flying over the city.[185]

On 17 September, the head of Sabhas military council, Colonel Ali Dallah Gaidi survived an assassination attempt in Ubari, but his wife was killed in the attack.[186]

On 23 September, Libyan Prime Minister Mustafa A.G. Abushagur office ordered, after meetings with representatives of Libyan political parties and security forces, all militias to either disband or come under army command in 48 hours.[187]

The Libyan army raided several militia outposts operating outside government control in the capital, Tripoli, on 24 September while in the east, the militia suspected in the attack on the US consulate has said that it has disbanded on orders of the country's president. Some of the militias have taken steps over the past several weeks to consolidate and work as contracted government security forces that are paid monthly salaries. In the western city of Misrata, for example, resident Walid Khashif said dozens of militias held a meeting recently and decided to work under the government's authority. He said the militias also handed over three main prisons in the city to the Ministry of Justice to run.[188]

On 24 September, clashes broke out between members of the National Army in Marj, leading to several casualties.[189]

On 25 September, Omran Shabaan died from his wounds in France. He was among the men who captured Gaddafi before his death. He was later allegedly captured and tortured in Bani Walid before being released when the prime minister visited the city earlier in the month.[190] The General National Congress of Libya, which was evacuated that day following a firefight on a protest by disgruntled former NTC fighters,[191] hailed Shabaan as a "brave hero" and called for inquires into the circumstances of his death in order to find and punish those responsible.[192]

On 27 September, the Security Directorate in Benghazi was attacked by unknown assailants who detonated a bomb outside, causing damages but no casualties.[193]

On 28 September, a "Rescue Tripoli Day" anti-militia demonstration was held with only a few hundred protesters, with the Grand Mufti of Libya calling for halting the protest for not being secure.[194] Two protesters, including one of the rally organizers, were beaten and detained by SSC members.[195] A second "Save Benghazi" rally was also called off that day,[196] while a few hundred demonstrated in Benghazi supporting Ansar al-Sharia, turning violent when the protest reached an Interior Ministry building, which was attacked with hand grenades, with no casualties.[197]

October 2012

Since late September, several army and police members were injured due to attacks on police stations and hospitals in Benghazi.[198]

On 2 October, clashes erupted between pro-government militias from Misrata and local militiamen in Bani Walid, with a result of one death and between five and ten wounded.[199][200]

On 3 October, three policemen were killed on a checkpoint in Susa, with a fourth injured in a critical condition, who died days later.[201] Jabal al Akhdar district police chief Nasser Zayed blamed hardline Islamists for the attack.[202][203]

On 4 October, protestors from Zawiya stormed the General National Congress building, demanding the dismissal of Prime Minister Mustafa Abushagur.[204]

On 5 October, an army officer escaped unhurted an assassination attempt in Derna, when a grenade was thrown to his car, allegedly by Islamist militants.[205]

On 6 October, the seven Iranian relief workers who were kidnapped in July in Benghazi were released. Officials believed that their captors were Islamists who accused them of propagating Shiism.[206]

By 8 October, thousands of soldiers surrounded Bani Walid and gave a deadline of 10 October to surrender the men who had tortured Omran Shaban to death, or face the town being stormed. Shelling of the town was reported, but the Misratan commanders denied they had any artillery that they could use against the town.[207]

On 9 October, Misratan fighters, who besieged Bani Walid since the beginning of the month, killed three residents, including a child, and injured seven others during an artillery attack on the town, according to Colonel Salem Waer, who was leading the Bani Walid fighters. In a counter-attack, nine Misratan fighters were wounded.[16]

On 10 October, violent clashes erupted between Bani Walid militias and Misrata militias in the valley of Mardum, 10 km east of Bani Walid. One Bani Walid fighter was killed and two others injured, while the overall death toll was put at 10 killed.[208]

On 12 October, a night-time curfew was imposed in Sirte by the local SSC, due to clashes between Warfalla tribesmen and Misratans fueled by the situation in Bani Walid. On the first night of the curfew, two members of the armed forces were injured by bullets.[209]

On 13 October, Benghazis police chief Colonel Mohamed Ben Haleem escaped an assassination attempt, when his car was detonated with a homemade bomb, as he was out of the vehicle.[210]

On 15 October, 120 prisoners escaped from Al Jadida prison in Tripoli, where Amnesty International denounced widespread torture after the ousting of Gaddafi. Head of Libyan National Guard Khaled al-Sharif claimed that half of the prisoners were detained on the same day.[211]

On 16 October, Captain Adel Baqramawi was killed when unknown assailants threw a bomb from a pick-up truck to his car, marking at least the 15th military official to be murdered in Benghazi in 2012.[212]

On 17 October, Bani Walid was shelled once again as ground clashes raged. Five government militiamen were killed and 44 wounded in the fighting,[213] while seven Bani Walid residents died in the shelling, and 75 were wounded.[214]

On 18 October, around 2,000 Libyan National Army units and its aligned militias, mainly from city of Misrata, started, after failed negotiations between the government and the local council, full-scale attack on Bani Walid. Army spokesman claimed that army moved quickly and secured town airport and was closing to city centre. This was denied by residents of the town who claimed that the airport was still under local militias control and that the army had not entered the town.[215]

On 19 October, between two and five Beni Walid residents were killed and 16 wounded according to local sources.[216] GNC President Mohammed Magarief condemned the full-scale attack on the city, as a 48-hour ceasefire was declared, but not respected. At that point, the week death toll was eight government soldiers and at least 12 Beni Walid residents.[217]

On 20 October, a Libyan government spokesman announced that Mussa Ibrahim was captured in Tarhuna. However, no picture was shown and some previous announcement later turned wrong. Mussa Ibrahim was on the run since the fall of the Gaddafi government one year ago.[218] A Facebook page purporting to belong to Mussa Ibrahim denied the capture and said that it was diversion of the Bani Walid siege.[219] An audio of Mussa Ibrahim was released, where he denied his capture and said that he was out of Libya. That day was also reported that Al-Hamali Ahmed al-Hatmani, the man credited to told Zintan militias where Saif al-Islam Gaddafi was hiding, was killed in the Wadi ash-Shati' by a Gaddafi supporter.[220] Also, the former Khamis Brigade camp, between Janzour and Zawiya, was attacked and held for hours by supposed Gaddafi loyalists.[221]

On 21 October, LANA reported that 22 pro-government militiamen were killed in combat in Bani Walid, and two hundred injured.[222][223] For at least the second time in 2012, a civilian protest stormed the GNC building. Hundreds of protestors, who demanded the end of violence in Bani Walid, were dispersed when security forces fired automatic and anti-aircraft weapons in the air, with at least two protestors injured.[224][225] Meanwhile in Benghazi, hundreds of protesters assaulted and ransacked the Libya TV building, angered by what they perceive as a not fair coverage of the Bani Walid crisis.[226] In Marj, a Muslim Brotherhood center was attacked with a grenade by unknown assailants, resulting in damage to the building.[227] Finally, Juma Sahli, the second elected Benghazi local council governor, presented his resignation because of the "desperate" situation and the lack of help from Tripoli.[228]

On 22 October, the Libyan shield force claimed to have control of 60% of the town whilst over 5,000 families were reported to have fled the fighting.[229] The Grand Libyan Mufti Sadeq Al-Ghariani said that Libyans will have to pay the price of their hypocrisy, referring to the multi-party political system as a "failed experiment".[230]

On 25 October the Libyan shield force and other militias captured Bani Walid, the battle ending with fighters firing celebratory fire in the center of the city. 13 civilians who were held by the Bani Walid fighters were freed and 100 Bani Walid fighters were arrested. Youssef al-Mankoush, the Libyan army chief of staff, said military operations in the city were terminated but that some forces were still chasing a few pockets of Gaddafi loyalists.[231]

On 26 October, a masked man entered a café in Benghazi and shot twice in the face Haitham Warfali, killing him instantly. A friend of the murdered was also wounded in the leg by the attacker. Friends of the victim linked the execution with his involvement in organising demonstrations in the city to protest the blockade of Bani Walid.[232]

On 28 October a Gambian migrant was shot dead by militiamen in Tripoli, according to eyewitnesses.[233]

On 30 October, Defence Minister Osama al-Juwaili admitted that Mangoush had no control over Bani Walid, as vigilante militia gunmen prevented civilians to return to the city (contradicting Libyan Army spokesman claims), which was near deserted, with half of its population displaced from the town because of the clashes.[234] According to AFP reporters in the town, many houses, shops and public buildings were either burned, ransacked or machine-gunned, with militiamen openly looting the town.[235] In Derna, the former head of the local Revolutionary Committees Khaled Assafi Adli was shot dead by unknown assailants, while in other separate incident a police traffic patrol was attacked, with three policemen injured.[236] In Tripoli, the GNC session was derailed when a dozen of demonstrators burst in.[237]

On 31 October, a traffic policeman was shot dead in Tripoli centre by an allegedly intoxicated member of the Suq Al-Juma Martyrs battalion, who was latter detained. Another traffic policeman was wounded in the incident.[238]

November 2012

On 1 November, around 200 armed protesters and militiamen occupied the parliament vicinity, blocking the roads heading to the building. They stated that they will not abandon the place until figures of the new cabinet who had served in Gaddafi governments were dismissed.[239]

On 4 November, a car exploded outside a police station in Benghazi, wounding four policemen and causing damage to the building.[240][241] The same night, the head of Cyrenaica Transitional Council’s military wing, Hamid Al-Hassi, narrowly survived an assassination attempt that leaved one of his bodyguards killed and two injured.[242] In Tripoli, the arrest attempt on Mohamed Al-Warfali, leader of a ministry of Interior SSC brigade, started clashes in Sidi Khalifa district. Warfali was arrested in October after what he was accused of supplying Bani Walid militia with weapons during battle and escaped under unclear circumstances. Militiamen set on fire the SSC headquarters, damaging also a nearby hospital, and looting shops on Zawiya street[243] Fighting lasted for much of the day, until army reinforcements arrived and Warfalli, together with 11 of his men, surrendered. Fighting allegedly killed at least 11 people, with some sources putting number up to 18, but there was no confirmation of the deaths. Angry residents also set ablaze Warfali house in the district.[244] Meanwhile, a protest at Zawiyas refinery caused petrol shortage in the Libyan capital.[245]

On 5 November, the corpse of former NTC Tarhuna's representative Abdel Basset Abu Naama was found on a locked car at the town. He had been kidnapped the day before, with his body allegedly showing torture signs and a fatal gunshot into the head.[246] In Khoms, one person was reported killed and four others injured in clashes between the SSC forces and a local militia named Katibat Nusur Al-Sahel (“The Coast Eagles”).[247]

On 6 November, the dead body of a retired colonel who had supported the NTC during the war was found in his farm in Benghazi, with shots in the head and chest.[248]

On 7 November, an explosive device was thrown at an army officer’s vehicle on the Benghazi airport road, causing the victim severe injuries. A car from another security officer was blown the day before at the city.[249]

On 10 November, armed clashes took place in Tiji (Nafusa Mountains) between local troops and a Kabaw-based militia, when the latter tried to take weapons and ammunition from a military base in the neighbour town. One Kabaw militiamen was killed and several wounded in both sides.[250]

On 12 November, the secretary of Sirte local council was killed by unknown gunmen outside the town’s medical institute, allegedly because his support to the NTC during the war.[251]

On 21 November, unidentified gunmen shot and killed Benghazi's police chief Faraj al-Deirsy in front of his home in the latest attack against security officials in Libya's second largest city.[252]

December 2012

On 4 December, 197 inmates escaped from a prison in Sabha, allegedly with complicity of the facility’s judicial police.[253]

On 11 December, a police station was attacked by unknown assailants in Darj (east of Ghadames), who leaved with three vehicles and a number of light weapons.[254]

On 12 December, five policemen were injured in Benghazi, when their police station was attacked with a S-5 rocket.[255]

On 15 December, three Libyan soldiers, including two Captains, were killed in Bani Walid when they were ambushed by gunmen who were then reported to have taken full control of the Darha area.[256] The next day, four policemen were killed in two attacks by Islamist gunmen in Benghazi.[257] The next night a second wave of attacks took place in Benghazi, with explosions and gunfire in two police stations, and drive-by shootings directed at police patrols, but no casualties were reported.[258] In Tripoli, the GNC announced the temporary closure of the borders with Algeria, Niger, Chad and Sudan, and declared southern Libya as a “closed military zone”.[259] In Traghan, the head of the local council was killed and two members of his family wounded by unknown assailants.[254]

On 17 December, unknown assailants attacked with explosives the Derna local radio and television station, targeting later the town’s police chief, Colonel Mofed Abd Al-Hafid, when he arrived to the scene.[260]

On 18 December, Medavia's Managing Director Abdulrazagh Zmirli and Technical General Manager Abdalla Dekna were detained by SSC members at Tripoli Airport and taken to Zawiya, on the suspicion that they helped the Qaddafi government during the war, although Zmirli was reportedly associated in 2011 with efforts to send aid to the NTC.[261] They were finally released without charges on 3 January 2013.[262]

On 20 December, during a demonstration calling for the release of a prisoner at the Security Directorate in Benghazi, clashes erupted between protesters and security forces, leaving at least one policemen, one soldier, two armed attackers and three civilians killed, as well as 16 wounded (8 civilians and 8 from the security forces).[263]

On 27 December, an unknown gunman killed Lieutenant Awad Mohamed Al-Fakhri and injured his mother, in their family house at Al-Abyar, near Benghazi.[264] Meanwhile, in Sirte, a nighttime curfew (the second in 2012) was imposed by a new security body, due to unresolved security issues in the town.[265]

On 29 December, unknown assailants attacked with home-made dynamite or a grenade the Coptic church of Mar Girgis in Dafniya, near Misrata, killing two Egyptians and injuring another two.[266] Both Egyptian Foreign Affairs Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr and the Head of Libya’s Copts, Father Timothaus Bishara Adla condemned the attack.[267] Meanwhile in Tripoli, units of the local SSC and police officers clashed again because the detention of a SSC member.[268] In Ubari, at least two Libya Shield militiamen were killed and an unknown number injured in armed clashes.[269]

On 30 December, the North Benghazi Prosecutor’s Office was targeted with a TNT bomb, wich only caused material damage.[270] Meanwhile in Bani Walid, Al-Madar Telecom suspended its services, as one of the company stations in the town had been attacked with rocket propelled grenades days ago.[271]

Second Sabha clashes

In Sabha (part of a "closed military zone"), clashes started that day (allegedly for the theft of a car by a tribe member) between members of the Awlad Suleiman and Qadhadhfa tribes, lasting for six days, although Army special forces units intervened on 31 December trying to end the violence. At least eleven people were killed and several wounded.[272][273]

2013

January 2013

On 1 January, members of the SSC in Tripoli blocked the roads going to the GNC building, protesting the government decision of integrating the SSC members into the police forces, and demanding the dimission of the Minister of Interior. SSC militiamen insulted the GNC members, stoned some of them, and even tried to break into the congress, being stopped by the building's security.[274] Also in Tripoli, five Pakistani Ahmedis were detained with the suspicion of trying to convert Libyans. A Libyan who had yet converted was arrested too.[275]

On 2 January, the acting head of the criminal investigations department in Benghazi was kidnapped at gunpoint, allegedly by hardline Islamists.[276]

On 5 January, the corpse of Colonel Nasser Al-Moghrabi, officer of the Benghazi criminal investigations department, was found at the Sidi Faraj area of the city. He seemed to had been executed.[277]

On 6 January, GNC president Mohamed Magarief dennounced that he had been the target of an assassination attempt at the hotel in Sabha where he was staying with his delegation on a visit. He told the Libyan state television that gunmen attacked the hotel with heavy gun-fire. An ongoing battle between Magarief's personal bodyguards and the gunmen lasted for three hours and left three of his guards wounded.[278] Although, a spokesman for the Defence Ministry said that he believed the shooting in Sebha had not been specifically aimed at the GNC President, but linked to the inter-tribal clashes of the precedent days in the town.[279]

On 7 January, a man was killed in Benghazi when he apparently tried to prepare a car bomb directed to Ahmed Bukatela, head of the hardline Islamist Obeida Bin Jarrah Brigade. The victim was Khaled Al-Madkour, brother of Major Nasser Al-Sharef Al-Madkour Al-Obeidi, one of the officers murdered along with General Abdel Fattah Younes in July 2011, allegedly by the Obeida Bin Jarrah Brigade.[280] Meanwhile in Tripoli, clashes erupted in Fashlum and Ben Ashur districts between SSC'S Nawasi brigade militiamen and family members and friends of a man called Najmi Ibrahim Al-Abani, tortured and killed by the militia, acussed of being a drug dealer.[281] Clashes were also reported in Sirte between the Zawiya Martyrs Brigade and Libya Shield forces, when the latter tried to enter the town.[282] Although, Lieutenant Colonel Abdullah Buhaliga, commander of the Zawiya brigade denied later the clashes.[283]

On 8 January, clashes erupted at the university campus in Kufra, leaving two or three killed, with the local council claiming they were unknown armed militants shot by troops, while the Toubou community claimed they were Toubou civilians assassinated by Zway militiamen.[284]

On 9 January, the Libyan Ministry of the Interior reported that the number of murders has risen from 87 in 2010 to 525 in 2012 — a 503% increase —, while thefts over the same period have risen from 143 to 783 — a 448% increase —.[285]

On 10 January, angry protesters tried to storm the Nawasi brigade headquarters at Mitiga Airport, in retaliation for the killing of Najmi Ibrahim Al-Abani. The clashes that continued in Tripoli since 7 January cost the life of at least five other people, with several wounded.[286]

On 12 January, unknown assailants attacked the armored car of the Italian Consul-General in Benghazi outside the Tibesti hotel. Guido de Sanctis, who was inside the vehicle when the attack took place, was unharmed.[287] The attack was condemned two days later by the Italian foreign affairs minister, Giulio Terzi.[288] Following the attack the Italian consulate in Benghazi was "temporary closed".[289]

On 14 January, a bomb was thrown at a police vehicle by the passengers of another car driving past in Benghazi. The officer who was driving the police car was killed in the explosion, and two other were wounded.[290][291]

On 15 January, the imam of a mosque in Misrata was killed and another five persons were severely injured when unknown assailants thown a grenade on the preacher as he was leaving a mosque in the town.[292] In Tripoli, a SSC militiaman connected with the previous days deadly clashes on Fashloum district was kidnapped, being found dead the next day in the Suq Al-Juma district as a result of a suspected revenge attack.[293] In Benghazi, Salah Muftah Al-Wazri, a member of the National Security Directorate, was killed when a bomb exploded underneath his vehicle.[291]

On 16 January, Libyan authorities declared their readyness to impose a nightime curfew from midnight to 5 in the morning in Benghazi, in an attempt to stop the violence wave, wich in 2012 cost the life of 19 senior security officials as well as several police officers in the city.[294]

See also

External links

References

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  214. Ex-rebels attack Libya's Bani Walid, 5 killed: local sources Google News (AFP)
  215. Exclusive: Full-scale assault on Bani Walid begins
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  221. Qaddafi attackers to face trial Libya Herald, 21 October 2012
  222. Bani Walid Battle Flares For 5th Day In Libya Clashes The Huffington Post (AP), 21 October 2012
  223. Libyan Town Under Siege Is a Center of Resistance to the New Government The New York Times, 21 October 2012
  224. Protesters break into grounds of Libya's parliament Ali Shuaib, Reuters, 21 October 2012
  225. Machine guns used to break up Bani Walid demonstration as 500 storm Congress Libya Herald, 21 October 2012
  226. Libya Al-Hurra TV station in Benghazi attacked Libya Herald, 21 October 2012
  227. Muslim Brotherhood centre in Marj attacked Libya Herald, 21 October 2012
  228. Second Benghazi local council president resigns Libya Herald, 21 October 2012
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  238. Policeman shot dead Libya Herald, 1 November 2012
  239. Armed men occupy Libya parliament vicinity Google News (AP), 1 November 2012
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  244. Locals reported killed in central Tripoli gun battle with rogue SSC brigade
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  246. Former Tarhouna NTC representative tortured and killed Libya Herald, 7 November 2012
  247. Deadly clashes in Khoms Libya Herald, 6 November 2012
  248. Retired colonel found dead in Benghazi Libya Herald, 6 November 2012
  249. Cars bombed in Benghazi Libya Herald, 7 November 2012
  250. Armed clashes take place in Nafusa Mountains Libya Herald, 11 November 2012
  251. Secretary of Sirte Local Council assassinated for “pro-revolutionary” loyalties Libya Herald, 14 November 2012
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  254. 254.0 254.1 Police station in Darj attacked Libya Herald, 12 December 2012
  255. Five officers injured in latest attack on Benghazi police station Libya Herald, 12 December 2012
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  259. GNC announces temporary closure of southern borders and declares south a “closed military zone” Libya Herald, 17 December 2012
  260. Explosion at Derna radio station, police attacked on arrival Libya Herald, 17 December 2012
  261. Joint-Venture air executives held six days in Zawia Libya Herald, 24 December 2012
  262. Medavia bosses released Times of Malta, 3 January 2013
  263. Army calls for calm in Benghazi as details of attack emerge Libya Herald, 21 December 2012
  264. Police officer shot dead in Al-Abiar Libya Herald, 27 December 2012
  265. New Sirte security body imposes curfew Libya Herald, 27 December 2012
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  268. Incident between SSC and police to be investigated Libya Herald, 29 December 2012
  269. Two brigadesmen die in local incident near Obari Libya Herald, 30 December 2012
  270. Bomb targets North Benghazi Prosecutor’s Office Libya Herald, 31 December 2012
  271. Almadar suspends network services in Bani Walid Libya Herald, 31 December 2012
  272. Renewed Sebha clashes leave four dead Libya Herald, 3 January 2013
  273. Tense calm in Sebha after six days of clashes Libya Herald, 4 December 2013
  274. First Deputy Head of GNC condemns SSC’s demonstration as ‘unreasonable’ Libya Herald, 2 January 2013
  275. Pakistani Ahmedis held Libya Herald, 16 January 2013
  276. Top cop kidnapped in Libya's Benghazi France24 (AFP), 3 January 2013
  277. Benghazi CID officer found dead Libya Herald, 5 January 2013
  278. Head of Libya’s GNC escapes assassination attempt Al Arabiya (AFP), 6 January 2013
  279. Details emerge of attack on Magarief in Sebha Libya Herald, 6 January 2013
  280. Man killed in car bomb murder attempt against Benghazi Islamist Libya Herald, 7 January 2013
  281. Clashes in Ben Ashur cause traffic chaos in Tripoli Libya Herald, 7 January 2013
  282. New military chief for Sirte Libya Herald, 7 January 2013
  283. Reports of clashes near Sirte denied Libya Herald, 9 January 2013
  284. New fatal clashes in Kufra Libya Herald, 8 January 2013
  285. Murder rate up 500% in two years Libya Herald, 9 January 2013
  286. Fashloum youth demand government action against Nawasi brigade; others support it Libya Herald, 12 January 2013
  287. Italy’s Consul-General in Benghazi shot at Libya Herald, 12 January 2013
  288. De Sanctis attack condemned Libya Herald, 14 January 2013
  289. Italian Consulate-General in Benghazi temporarily closed Libya Herald, 16 January 2013
  290. Police car bombed in Benghazi; one officer reported killed Libya Herald, 14 January 2013
  291. 291.0 291.1 Another Benghazi security official murdered Libya Herald, 16 January 2013
  292. Misrata Imam murdered Libya Herald, 17 January 2013
  293. SSC member murdered in suspected revenge attack Libya Herald, 17 January 2013
  294. Curfew mulled for Benghazi Libya Herald, 17 January 2013


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ru:Вооружённые столкновения в Ливии после окончания гражданской войны (2011 — н.в.)

sr:Побуне у Либији после грађанског рата

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