Canadian fiddlers perform during the Opening Ceremony of the XXI Olympic Winter Games at BC Place stadium|
Canadian fiddlers perform during the Opening Ceremony of the XXI Olympic Winter Games at BC Place stadium
|Date||12 February 2010|
|Time||18:00 – 21:00 PST (UTC−8)|
The Opening Ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics was held on February 12, 2010 beginning at 6:00 pm PST (02:00 UTC, February 13) at BC Place Stadium in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This was the first Olympic opening ceremony to be held indoors. It was directed by David Atkins.
The event was officially opened by Governor General Michaëlle Jean, representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada. The opening ceremony was dedicated by the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) to Nodar Kumaritashvili, a Georgian luger who died earlier in the day in a training run. An audience of 61,600 were in attendance at the venue. There were an estimated 4,500 performers.
The production's director was David Atkins, who directed the Sydney 2000 Olympic and 2006 Doha Asian Games ceremonies. The Opening and Closing Ceremonies had a combined budget of $48.5 million (it received $20 million (CA$
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The music during the ceremony came from the live on-stage orchestra, conducted by Pierce.
On December 15, 2010, John Furlong, the CEO of VANOC revealed that Celine Dion had been contracted to sing the national anthem at the Opening Ceremony. However, when she became pregnant she cancelled the performance and was subsequently replaced by 16-year-old Nikki Yanofsky. In addition, Furlong also revealed that "a famous Quebec composer" was contracted to provide musical elements to the show. That composer, whom he would not name, backed out of arrangement months before the Games over what he termed "philosophical differences." As a result, the artist refused to allow VANOC access to his music's rights and the organizing committee had to unwind part of the ceremony. There is speculation within the media that the Opening Ceremony's cultural show finale titled "We Are More," featuring slam poetry by Shane Koyczan, served as a last minute replacement for the canceled segment featuring the Quebec composer's music. VANOC had also requested the Cirque du Soleil to perform several aerial stunts, however it opted not to as it was already stretched with many U.S. productions.
Giant video screens showed Canadian snowboarder Johnny Lyall sliding down a mountain slope, with the dates and locations of previous Winter Olympic games were recalled in voiceover. As the 1988 games in Calgary were mentioned, Lyall passed through a row of torchbearers in the shape of the Canadian symbol: the maple leaf. This concluded with Lyall leaping through a set of Olympic Rings, while snow and ice exploded off them and into the stadium, and him welcoming the crowd.
A guard of honour mounted by the RCMP marched the Canadian Flag to the flagpost. There a guard of honour composed of Canadian Forces members raised the flag. Nikki Yanofsky performed an arrangement of the national anthem, "O Canada", singing in English and French.
Welcome by the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
The First Nations in whose traditional territories the games were held - the Squamish Nation, Musqueam Indian Band, Lil'wat First Nation, and Tsleil-Waututh First Nation - were recognized as heads of state and seated directly behind the Canadian Governor General and the Prime Minister. Four Coast Salish welcome poles were raised from the centre of the stadium, and greetings were given to the crowd (and the world) by members of the Four Host First Nations in their respective languages as well as English and French. The arms of the poles were raised in a traditional gesture of greeting to welcome the athletes and the world. Following the greetings, groups of dancers from other main culture-regions of aboriginal societies within Canada were introduced, including the Métis Nation and the Inuit, as well as the Peoples of the Northwest, the Peoples of the Plains and the Peoples of the East and took places around the welcome poles and a large drum surface between them, forming a welcome circle to prepare for the forthcoming Parade of the Nations and danced traditional welcoming dances as the athletes paraded in.
Parade of the Nations
The participating countries marched in, with Greece coming first, then the other nations ending with the host nation, Canada. The names of the nations were announced first in French and followed by English, the official languages of the Olympics, which also happened to be the official languages of the host nation. The nations entered in alphabetic order of their country names in English because it is the more dominant of the two languages in Vancouver and in the province of British Columbia.
The team from Georgia was greeted with a standing ovation out of respect for their colleague, Nodar Kumaritashvili, who died in a luge accident earlier that day. The team left an empty space in the processional and left the stadium immediately following the procession. They had indicated they would not participate in the opening ceremony or withdraw completely, but decided against doing so. The team wore black scarves and armbands to honor Kumaritashvili while a black ribbon was affixed to the team's flag. Teams from some countries, including Australia also wore black armbands in respect of Kumaritashvili.
China, which hosted the last Olympics in Beijing, also got a standing ovation due to the large Chinese population in Vancouver, as did the United States, which received the loudest ovation before Canada entered two minutes later.
Athlete Tribute Song
Nelly Furtado and Bryan Adams, both themselves Vancouver residents performed "Bang the Drum", which was written by Adams and producer Jim Vallance as a tribute to the Olympic athletes present.
The Landscape of a Dream
The cultural section of the Opening Ceremony was titled "The Landscape of a Dream" whose purpose was to celebrate the diverse geography and people of Canada. It was directed by David Atkins and the narration was provided by Donald Sutherland, himself one of the Olympic flag bearers. It featured tributes to different regions of Canada.
Hymns of the North
A Tribute to Northern Canada After Nelly Furtado and Bryan Adams had finished their performance, snow began to fall throughout the stadium. Performers, dressed in warm, Inuit-like clothes, walked about and mingled on the stage floor. Their leader took his staff and banged it on the ground, producing waves of light rippling on the floor. The northern lights and different constellations of animals appeared. A giant, sparkling puppet (one of the largest puppets ever created) of a spirit or Kermode bear that rose from the stadium floor, and hovered over the performers, who were standing on a simulated ice floe. After a few seconds, the ice began to break up, and the performers "floated" to the edge of the stage, where they disappeared. The ice breaking away gave way to a huge arctic sea, where simulated whales swam while breathing until next transition.
- Opened with brown Coast Salish welcome poles rising up, symbolizing welcome. Red salmon rose from the floor to the ceiling via the poles, representing salmon spawning. Foliage appeared on top of the poles, symbolizing a lush grove of trees. Dancers from Alberta Ballet and Ballet BC assembled around the grove as a quote from My Heart Soars by Chief Dan George was read. Sarah McLachlan, herself a Vancouver resident though born in Halifax, performed her song "Ordinary Miracle" while the dancers danced in and around the grove. The ballet dancers also danced to "Adagio for Strings" by Samuel Barber as the grove turned into a starry sky. All turned white and the performers rose to the ceiling after this piece finished.
Rhythms of the Fall
This tribute to the fiddling traditions of Canada as well as French Canadians, particularly those of the Maritime Provinces, began with the appearance of the horned fiddler in a flying canoe, a reference to the story of the Chasse-galerie. As the canoe descended from the ceiling, the opening of the song "The Old Ways" was performed by Loreena McKennitt.
- Fiddler/aerialist Colin Maier duelled with his shadow that appears on the moon. The stage was here covered with big red maple leaves. The song played during this sequence is the start of "The Old Ways",
- There were six lead "Hero Fiddlers" on the centre stage, each fiddling a certain style of Canadian fiddling: Andre Brunet (Quebec/French Canadian), Daniel Lapp (Pacific Northwest), Sierra Noble (Métis), Samantha Robichard (Acadian/Cape Breton), April Verch (Prairies) and Ashley MacIsaac (Cape Breton). Dancers around the stage performed the respective styles of Canadian stepdance to each fiddler's style of fiddling.
- A tap dancer, Brock Jellison, called a river to encircle the main podium.
At some point in this section, Calvin Vollrath who was sitting next to the orchestra, performed "Fiddle Nation", a tune he'd composed. This portion of the ceremony was concluded by Ashley MacIsaac who performed his version of the traditional nineteenth century strathspey "Devil in the Kitchen".
Who Has Seen the Wind
"Who Has Seen the Wind" was a tribute to Canadian Prairies. A lone boy, Thomas Saulgrain (L'École Nationale de Cirque) stood in the centre of the floor in a square wheat. A voice quoted from the novel Who Has Seen the Wind (novel) by W. O. Mitchell As the boy began running, he was lifted up and performed ballet on fly wire. A beautiful rendition of the song "Both Sides, Now" by Joni Mitchell was played during this segment. 
Peaks of Endeavour
"Peaks of Endeavour" was a tribute to the Canadian Rockies and Western Canada. After the previous segment had ended, a storm was stimulated and clouds seemed to fall to the ground. As the clouds gave away, mountains, resembling the rocky mountains, rose from the floor. A George Vancouver quote was read by Donald Sutherland, and skiers and snowboarders hung from wires to simulate going down the artificial mountains. Images of winter sports in action exploded onto the mountains, which finally gave way to sports victories. Inline skaters mimicked figure skaters and speed skaters, circling the artificial mountains as the videos of sports changed to the Vancouver skyline. Coloured lines of light representing flowing traffic surrounded the mountain.
We Are More
After the mountains that had been the feature for "Peaks of Endeavor" fell away, Shane Koyczan performed slam poetry, a variation on his "We Are More". (transcript) Performers formed a giant maple leaf around Koyczan with red flares to end off his section.
Opening remarks/Official Opening
The opening remarks began with Jacques Rogge, President of the IOC, who offered sympathy for the loss of Georgian luge athlete, Nodar Kumaritashvili. A welcome from John Furlong, Chair of the Vancouver Organizing Committee, was then delivered. (transcript) A statement by Rogge followed, mixing English and French. Finally, Michaëlle Jean, Governor General of Canada, declared the games officially open, first in French, then in English.
Song of Peace
k.d. lang performed a version of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah". While she was singing, doves, the symbol of peace, were projected on the stage floor, and rose from the stage floor to the ceiling via columns to symbolize their release.
Entry of the Olympic Flag
Former hockey star Bobby Orr; musician Anne Murray; Formula One champion Jacques Villeneuve; Betty Fox, the mother of cancer research champion Terry Fox; actor Donald Sutherland; gold medal figure skater Barbara Ann Scott; UNAMIR commander Roméo Dallaire; and Julie Payette, Canadian astronaut, carried the flag into the stadium. They then transferred the flag to members of the RCMP, who then raised the flag. Canadian opera singer Measha Brueggergosman sang the Olympic Hymn, mixing English and French.
Afterwards, a minute of silence was observed for the Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili's death, during which time both the Canadian and Olympic flags were lowered to half-staff. Upon learning of Kumaritashvili's death, the Governor General of Canada-in-Council ordered flags on federal government buildings throughout the province of British Columbia, including at all Olympic venues, flown at half-mast until midnight, February 13, 2010.
Canadian woman's ice hockey player Hayley Wickenheiser took the oath on behalf of all 2010 Olympic athletes in English, while the officials' oath was taken by short track speed skating referee Michel Verrault in French.
Lighting of the Cauldron
Rick Hansen, paraplegic athlete and paralympic medalist, carried the flame into BC Place stadium and lit the torch of speed skater Catriona Le May Doan, who in turn lit the torch of basketball All-Star Steve Nash. Nash then lit skier Nancy Greene's torch who lit the torch of Wayne Gretzky, Hall of Fame hockey player. Le May Doan, Nash, Greene, and Gretzky then made their way to their four pre-determined locations on the stadium floor to await the raising of the cauldron.
Due to a malfunction of the Olympic cauldron's hydraulic system, only three of the four arms came up before it was lit. Le May Doan's designated arm of the cauldron had malfunctioned, so she stood by as the other three athletes lit the cauldron at the same time by touching the base of the arms with their respective torches. After the cauldron was lit, a series of red fireworks were shot off in a ring around the exterior of the stadium. Gretzky then jogged out of the stadium, where he was then driven by police escorts through the streets of downtown Vancouver to light a second, outdoor cauldron near the Vancouver Convention Centre located in the city's downtown waterfront district. Under IOC rules, the lighting of the Olympic cauldron must be witnessed by those attending the opening ceremony, implying that it must be lit at the location where the ceremony is taking place. Although another IOC rule states that the cauldron should be witnessed outside by the entire residents of the entire host city, this was not possible since the ceremony took place indoors. However, VANOC secretly built a second outdoor cauldron next to the West Building of the Vancouver Convention Centre, and Gretzky was secretly chosen to light this permanent cauldron. Quickly word spread through the downtown Vancouver area that Gretzky was indeed the final torchbearer, and very soon a crush of people came running after the police escort to cheer Gretzky on and hopefully catch a glimpse of him carrying the torch to the outdoor cauldron.
The closing ceremony of the games would begin with a tongue-in-cheek homage to the indoor cauldron malfunction, featuring mime Yves Dagenais repairing and finally raising the missing arm of the cauldron, and offering Le May Doan a chance to finally light her arm of the interior cauldron.
Dignitaries and other officials in attendance
- Michaëlle Jean, Governor General of Canada
- Jean-Daniel Lafond, Viceregal consort of Canada
- Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada
- Laureen Harper, Spouse of the Prime Minister of Canada
- Gordon Campbell, Premier of British Columbia, and his wife Nancy Campbell
- Chiefs of the Four Host First Nations whose traditional lands the Olympics are hosted on (treated as heads of state):
- Toomas Hendrik Ilves, President of Estonia
- Evelin Ilves, First Lady of Estonia
- Laine Jänes, Estonian minister of culture
- Mikheil Saakashvili, President of Georgia
- Valdis Zatlers, President of Latvia
- Albert II, Prince of Monaco
- Doris Leuthard, President of the Swiss Federal Council
- Joe Biden, Vice President of the United States
- Jill Biden, Second Lady of the United States
- Alexander Zhukov - Deputy Prime Minister of Russia and President of the Russian Olympic Committee
- Prince Konstantinos-Alexios of Greece and Denmark son of the Greek Royal Family
- Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
- Mary, Crown Princess of Denmark
- John Dowling Coates - Member of the International Olympic Committee representing Australia.
- Gerhard Heiberg - Current IOC member representing Norway
- Sir Craig Reedie - Current IOC member representing Great Britain
- Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange
- Princess Máxima of the Netherlands
- Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands
- Princess Alexia of the Netherlands
- Princess Ariane of the Netherlands
- Thomas Bach - Current IOC Vice President and member of the IOC representing Germany.
- Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway, lighter of the cauldron at the Lillehammer Olympics
- Anne, Princess Royal
- Jan Fischer, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic
- Jan Peter Balkenende, Prime Minister of the Netherlands
- Mario Pescante - Current IOC member representing Italy.
- Dmitry Kozak, Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
- Faruk Nafız Özak, Minister of State for Turkey
- Tessa Jowell, Minister for the Olympics of the United Kingdom
- David Jacobson, United States Ambassador to Canada
- Valerie Jarrett, Senior Advisor to the President of the United States
- Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor of California
- Mario Vázquez Raña, President of both the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) and the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC).
- John Coates, President of the Australian Olympic Committee
- Horst Köhler, President of Germany
- Juan Antonio Samaranch, former president of the IOC
- Maria Teresa Samaranch - President of the Spanish Federation of Sports
- Jacques Rogge, current president of the IOC
- Dick Pound, Current member of the IOC (Canada) and former head of WADA.
- Rene Fasel, President of the IIHF
- Leandro Negre, President of the FIH
- Richard Carrión Current IOC member representing, Puerto Rico.
- Nawal El Moutawakel, Former Olympic gold medalist and current IOC member representing, Morocco.
- Sam Ramsamy, Current IOC member representing, South Africa.
- Toronto Star arts critic Richard Ouzounian gave the ceremony a negative review, blasting the proceedings as "an unimaginatively conceived and loosely executed spectacle that promised much and delivered little."
- The New York Times' Charles McGrath described the event as "like New Year’s Eve, but a tasteful, well-behaved New Year’s Eve", and that it was "authentically and unabashedly Canadian".
- Cleve Dheensaw of the Times-Colonist (Victoria) described the ceremony as "moving and memorable."
- Paul Wells of Maclean's described the event as "sometimes incomprehensible, but sometimes heart-stoppingly beautiful."
- Also from Maclean's, Wayne Gretzky's trip on a truck through downtown Vancouver to the waterfront cauldron was described as a "redneck Popemobile" by writer Scott Feschuk.
- The Ottawa Citizen's Mark Sutcliffe deemed the occasion "tasteful but dull, well-behaved and sometimes thoughtful. You've got Canada nailed." He also found the ceremony lacked a portrayal of contemporary urban Canadian society.
- Nikki Yanofsky's performance of "O Canada" received mixed reactions. McGrath panned the performance as a "power ballad" while Ouzounian deemed it an "uncomfortable alliance of pop and jazz". Conversely, Wells praised the "gorgeously languid" singing while Alex Strachan of Canwest News Service also had a generally positive reaction taking exception only to a "backbeat" in the arrangement. Trevor Payne of the Montreal Jubilation Gospel Choir took issue with the "arrangement and interpretation" of the anthem but also found that Yanofsky was "gifted" in terms of vocal quality.
James Moore, the Minister of Canadian Heritage, and Quebec Premier Jean Charest both expressed disappointment in the limited amount of French content during the ceremony. The Canadian Commissioner of Official Languages, Graham Fraser, was of the impression that the event was "developed, perceived and presented in English with a French song." Fraser's office received numerous complaints regarding the ceremony. VANOC, however, defended the case and said that they had made "a very deliberate focus and effort to ensure a strong celebration of Quebec culture and language." They also said that there was a significant amount of French in the opening ceremony. David Atkins said that the ceremonies did celebrate francophone Canada.
There are critics saying that 41% of Metro Vancouver residents are visible minorities yet these groups are mostly absent from the opening ceremony. VANOC CEO John Furlong hints that VANOC would try to address this issue in the closing ceremony.
The international television audience varied from source. VANOC estimated more than a billion.
North American ratings
On both sides of the Canada-US border, this opening ceremony drew high television ratings.
In Canada, this ceremony aired on the CTV Television Network and 10 other channels (all part of a CTV-Rogers media consortium), in a total of 11 languages. The broadcast drew an average of 13.3 million viewers across the country at any given moment, and 23 million Canadians, 69 percent of the national audience, watching at least a portion of the 3.5-hour ceremony. It was, for a period, the most-watched television event in Canadian history; these numbers were surpassed on the final day of the Games by the gold medal game of the Men's hockey tournament, which drew 16.6 million viewers.
South of the border, NBC reported an average of 32.6 million viewers, making it the second-most watched non-United States Winter Olympics, behind the Lillehammer Games in 1994, which drew 33.8 million, and the third most-watched non-United States Olympics, behind the previous one, the Summer Olympics in Beijing two years before (34.2 million) and Lillehammer, and with 67.5 million viewers watching at least a portion of it, it was the most watched non-United States Winter Olympics, and the second-most watched non-United States Olympics, behind Beijing, as that drew 69.9 million viewers.
A soundtrack, Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Opening Ceremony Commemorative Album (French: Musique de Vancouver 2010 : L'album commémoratif de la cérémonie d'ouverture des Jeux), was released through the iTunes Store on February 12, 2010, containing many studio recordings of the performances from the opening ceremony. It charted at #6 on the Canadian Albums Chart, and has sold over 50,000 copies. The song performed by Garou, "Un peu plus haut, un peu plus loin", was released on the accompanying soundtrack for the closing ceremony.
|1.||"Fire on the Mountain"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||4:20|
|2.||"Canadian Athletes"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||1:58|
|3.||"Bang the Drum"||Bryan Adams & Nelly Furtado||3:48|
|4.||"O Canada"||Nikki Yanofsky||3:21|
|5.||"Aboriginal Welcome"||Singers and Drummers of the Four Host Nations||2:53|
|6.||"Hymn to the North"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra & Donald Sutherland||2:55|
|7.||"Sacred Grove"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra & Donald Sutherland||2:56|
|8.||"Ordinary Miracle & Fantasy Ballet"||Sarah McLachlan||6:32|
|9.||"Rhythms of the Fall"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||6:19|
|10.||"Who Has Seen the Wind"||Donald Sutherland||0:54|
|11.||"Both Sides, Now"||Joni Mitchell||5:27|
|12.||"Storm"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||1:54|
|13.||"Peaks of Endeavour"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||6:04|
|14.||"Raising of the Olympic Flag"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||2:55|
|15.||"We Are More"||Shane Koyczan||2:06|
|16.||"Olympic Anthem"||Measha Brueggergosman||4:36|
|17.||"Parade of Athletes"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||3:15|
|18.||"The Olympic Flame"||The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Orchestra||6:43|
|Canadian Albums Chart||6|
|Digital Albums Chart||2|
|Book: 2010 Winter Olympics|
|Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print.|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Kaufman, Michelle (12 February 2010). Winter Olympics opening ceremony dedicated to Georgian luger killed. Miami Herald. Retrieved on 13 February 2010.[dead link]
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 "PIGI projection makes dazzling opening ceremony in Doha Asian Games". Xinhua. December 2, 2006.
- ↑ Governor General to Open the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Governor General of Canada (February 8, 2010). Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved on 2010-02-10.
- ↑ Canadian Press (2009-06-27). "Gov. Gen. Jean to open 2010 Games: PM". Edmonton Sun.
- ↑ Role of the Governor General. Office of the Secretary to the Governor General (OSGG). Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. Retrieved on 13 February 2010.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Strachan, Alex (February 12, 2010). Olympics begin with an extravaganza. Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved on March 26, 2012.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Barber, Mike; Lee, Jeff (2010-02-15). "Heritage minister 'disappointed' by lack of French". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100217065231/http://www.ottawacitizen.com/life/Heritage+minister+disappointed+lack+French/2565813/story.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- ↑ VANOC adds top creative talent. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved on 2 March 2010.
- ↑ Lee, Jeff (December 16, 2010). "Furlong rejects official languages report; Vanoc boss says 38 complaints can't compare to 10,000 letters of thanks". The Vancouver Sun: p. A11.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Friesen, Paul (13 February 2010). Opening Ceremony timeline. Toronto Sun. Retrieved on 13 February 2010.
- ↑ Parry, Chris (February 12, 2010). Vancouver Olympic opening ceremony: Wayne Gretzky lights cauldron. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved on 13 February 2010.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Crary, David (February 12, 2010). "Despite Luge Death, Olympics' Opening Ceremony Goes On". Denver Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 11, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20141212013656/http://www.denverpost.com/broncos/ci_14393155?source=pkg.
- ↑ Death Casts Pall Over Olympics. Wall Street Journal. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Black armband tribute for fallen rival. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2010-02-12. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony (television). NBC Sports. 2010-02-12.
- ↑ Hume, Stephen (2010-02-16). "Dazzling images, with irony to match". The Gazette (Montreal). http://www.montrealgazette.com/technology/Dazzling+images+with+irony+match/2569702/story.html. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
- ↑ Howell, Mike (2010-02-17). "12th and Cambie: Games people play". Vancouver Courier. http://www2.canada.com/vancouvercourier/story.html?id=9ce9d745-7565-4ea7-8380-30cec4560377. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
- ↑ Reilly, Rick (2010-02-16). "Are we having fun yet?". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/columns/story?columnist=reilly_rick&id=4916058. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 http://voices.yahoo.com/vancouver-2010-opening-ceremonies-recap-5469061.html
- ↑ http://www.vancouverobserver.com/blogs/overheardolympics/2010/02/13/what-we-saw-opening-ceremonies-vancouver-2010-olympic-games
- ↑ The Session: Tunes - The Devil in the Kitchen (Strathspey), http://www.thesession.org/tunes/display/1746, retrieved 2010-01-14
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Half-Masting of the Flag. Department of Canadian Heritage. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved on 2010-02-14.
- ↑ The Canadian Press (13 February 2010). Hayley Wickenheiser reads athletes’ oath at opening ceremonies of Olympic Games. Yahoo! Sports Canada. Retrieved on 13 February 2010.
- ↑ Yahoo! Babelfish translation
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 Canada unveils its 'landscape of dreams' to welcome athletes and world at the Opening Ceremony of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. VANOC (12 February 2010). Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved on 25 April 2011.
- ↑ "2010 Opening Ceremony: Colour, culture, Gretzky and the accidental tripod". vancouversun.com (CanWest Publishing). Feb 13, 2010. Archived from the original on 15 February 2010. http://www.vancouversun.com/sports/2010wintergames/2010+Opening+ceremony+Colour+culture+Gretzky+accidental+tripod/2558705/story.html. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
- ↑ Crawford, Tiffany (February 13, 2010). "People chase Gretzky through the streets of Vancouver". Vancouver Sun (CanWest Publishing). Archived from the original on February 16, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100216130848/http://www.vancouversun.com/People+chase+Wayne+Gretzky+through+streets+Vancouver/2558755/story.html.
- ↑ Opening Ceremony. India Times (12 February 2010). Retrieved on 19 February 2010.
- ↑ Matas, Robert (2009-11-30). "First Nation leaders to get the presidential treatment". Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. http://www.ctvolympics.ca/about-vancouver/news/newsid=21095.html. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 30.2 Estonian and Latvian presidents to go to Olympics in Vancouver. The Baltic Course (February 2, 2010). Retrieved on 19 February 2010.
- ↑ Fitzpatrick, Frank (February 13, 2010). Opening ceremony for Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved on 18 February 2010.
- ↑ President Zatlers to attend opening ceremonies at Vancouver Olympics. Latvijas reitingi (February 2, 2010). Retrieved on 18 February 2010.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 33.2 Ward, Doug (February 3, 2010). Vice-President Biden slated to attend opening ceremony. Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved on 18 February 2010.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.8 34.9 Holland's Willem-Alexander and Maxima provide royal cheer in Vancouver. Hello Magazine (February 15, 2010). Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved on March 26, 2012.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Mickleburgh, Rod (February 12, 2010). News from the 2010 Winter Olympics. The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. Retrieved on 13 February 2010.
- ↑ Winter Olympic Games. Government of the Netherlands (February 2, 2010). Archived from the original on December 12, 2014.
- ↑ Sochi 2014 Delegation Visits Vancouver 2010 At Five-Year Countdown. Gamesbids.com (February 5, 2010). Retrieved on 18 February 2010.
- ↑ "State Minister Ozak Travels to Canada". The Journal of the Turkish Weekly. February 11, 2010. http://www.turkishweekly.net/news/97593/state-minister-ozak-travels-to-canada.html. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
- ↑ Jowell, Tessa (March 1, 2010). "Bottle that Vancouver enthusiasm and London 2012 will really hit the spot". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140106202526/http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2010/mar/01/winter-olympics-london-2012.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony (television). CTV Sports. 2010-02-12.
- ↑ http://www.fieldhockey.ca/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=398&Itemid=35
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 Ouzounian, Richard (2010-02-13). "Ouzounian: Medium marvellous, message mediocre". The Star (Toronto). Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. http://olympics.thestar.com/2010/article/764926--ouzounian-medium-marvellous-message-mediocre. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 McGrath, Charles (February 13, 2010). "A Tasteful Way to Start the Olympic Games". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/14/sports/olympics/14mcgrath.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- ↑ Dheensaw, Cleve (February 13, 2010). "Opening ceremony done right". Times-Colonist. http://www.timescolonist.com/story_print.html?id=2560946&sponsor=. Retrieved 2010-02-13. [dead link]
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Wells, Paul (2010-01-13). "The Opening Ceremonies: To see ourselves as others see us". Maclean's. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. http://www2.macleans.ca/2010/02/13/the-opening-ceremonies-to-see-ourselves-as-others-see-us/. Retrieved 2010-01-13.
- ↑ Feschuk, Scott (2010-02-13). "The Opening Ceremonies: A Whistler Perspective". Maclean's. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. http://www2.macleans.ca/2010/02/13/the-opening-ceremonies-a-whistler-perspective/. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
- ↑ Sutcliffe, Mark (February 14, 2010). "Only in Canada, eh? Pity". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100217051658/http://www.ottawacitizen.com/sports/2010wintergames/Only+Canada+Pity/2562841/story.html. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 "So, how'd you think she did?". The Gazette (Montreal). 2010-02-14. http://www.montrealgazette.com/story_print.html?id=2562656. Retrieved 2010-02-26. [dead link]
- ↑ Keller, Jason (2010-02-17). "No medal for Yanofsky's anthem". Toronto: Now. http://www.nowtoronto.com/daily/story.cfm?content=173679. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- ↑ Strachan, Alex (2010-02-21). "Critiquing TV coverage of Games". Canwest News Service.
- ↑ "Olympics need more French: heritage minister". CBC. 2010-02-14. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2010/02/14/olympics-french-charest-moore.html#ixzz0feuR5zFl. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- ↑ "Watchdog probes lack of French at Olympics". CBC News. 2010-02-16. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2010/02/16/fraser-french016.html. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
- ↑ Mickleburgh, Rod (February 15, 2010). "VANOC defends French content of opening ceremony". The Globe and Mail: p. A6.
- ↑ Lee, Jeff (February 15, 2010). "Not everyone happy with amount of French content at kickoff". The Vancouver Sun: p. A2.
- ↑ Moore, Dene (February 14, 2010). "Political bigwigs and languages commissioner decry lack of French at Games". Canadian Press.
- ↑ "More visible minorities at closing, VANOC hints". CBC. 2010-02-18. Archived from the original on 20 February 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2010/02/18/bc-visible-minorities-olympic-ceremonies.html. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 57.2 NBC draws impressive viewership for opening ceremony. The Sporting News (February 13, 2010). Archived from the original on 15 February 2010. Retrieved on 2010-03-26.
- ↑ Record numbers watch Canada win hockey gold (March 2, 2010). Retrieved on 28 March 2010.
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 Associated Press (February 13, 2010). "32.6 million watch opening of Winter Olympics". NBC News. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35384274/ns/entertainment-television/. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
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- ↑ Folkenfilk, David (August 12, 2008). Live From Beijing: Computer-Enhanced Fireworks. NPR. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
- ↑ allmusic [Sounds Of Vancouver 2010: Olympic Opening Ceremony]. Allmusic.
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 Vancouver 2010 signs new licensees to create products, auction off memorabilia capturing memories of Games. Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics (22 February 2010). Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved on 12 March 2010.
- ↑ Iltan, Cigdem (22 February 2010). "Calvin Vollrath brings Canadian tunes to world at Olympics". Edmonton Journal. http://www.edmontonjournal.com/entertainment/Calvin+Vollrath+brings+Canadian+tunes+world+Olympics/2596423/story.html. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
- Media related to 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony at Wikimedia Commons
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