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<tr align=center style="background-color: #f0f0f0; border-top:1px solid #aaa"><td colspan=2>South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons
2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11
2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season
First storm formed October 6, 2008 (01)
Last storm dissipated April 11, 2009 (Jade)
Strongest storm Fanele and Gael – 930 hPa (mbar), 185 km/h (115 mph)
Total disturbances 12
Tropical depressions 10
Total storms 10
Tropical cyclones 2
Intense tropical cyclones 2
Total fatalities 30 direct, 2 missing
Total damage Unknown
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The 2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2008, and officially ended on April 30, 2009, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2009. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

As predicted by the sub regional office of Mauritius ten named storms formed in this basin.[1] It officially began on November 15, but began 1 month earlier when Tropical Storm Asma formed on October 16. Most of the storms that formed this year were weak or stayed at sea. Only two storms reached hurricane strength this year, both of which were Category 3 or higher, and only 3 storms made landfall in the entire season. Overall, the impact of this season was relatively minor, but damaging for Madagascar, due to the heavy rains from Eric, Fanele, Izilda and Jade.

Storms

Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Zone of Disturbed Weather 01

Zone of Disturbed Weather
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Duration October 6 – October 8
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)
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On October 6, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began monitoring an area of persistent convection about 575 km (355 mi) southeast of Diego Garcia. Although the center of circulation (CoC) was elongated, the system was located within an area of low wind shear and development of the low was possible.[2] At 12:00 UTC later that day, the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC), Météo-France, began issuing advisories on "Zone of Disturbed Weather 01". Despite a banding feature developed around the CoC, significant development was not anticipated.[3] The low gradually weakened throughout October 7,[4] and dissipated the next day.[5]

Moderate Tropical Storm Asma

Moderate tropical storm
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Tropical storm
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Duration October 16 – October 23
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  988 mbar (hPa)
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On October 16, 2008, RSMC La Réunion designated an area of low pressure north-west of Diego Garcia as Tropical Disturbance 02.[6] Later that evening the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system.[7] Later that evening the JTWC issued their first advisory and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 01S.[8] Early the next day the disturbance intensified into a tropical depression.[9] Early on October 18, RSMC La Réunion downgraded the system to a tropical disturbance noting that the near gale-force winds that were near the center are now several hundred kilometers away from the center.[10] The next day RSMC Réunion re-upgraded the system to a tropical depression due to a slight decrease in vertical wind shear that had inhibited the disturbance and a slight re-location of the center.[11] Later that day RSMC La Réunion upgraded the depression to a Moderate Tropical storm, so the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre in Maurtius assigned the name Asma to the tropical storm.[12] Early on October 20, Asma reached its peak intensity with winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) with a minimum pressure of 985 hPa (mbar). The storm featured good outflow and was situated over warm waters; however, moderate wind shear was forecast to prevent the cyclone from intensifying any further.[13] Shortly after reaching peak intensity, the combination of cooler waters and higher wind shear caused the storm to weaken slightly.[14] Continued weakening took place throughout the day as deep convection associated with Asma dissipated and the strongest winds were displaced from the center.[15] By the morning of October 21, Asma was downgraded to a tropical depression as the low became further disorganized.[16] Later that day, the depression degenerated to a tropical disturbance as only an exposed low remained.[17] The final advisory was issued at 0600 UTC on October 22 as no redevelopment took place.[18] However, only 12 hours after the final advisory was issued, the disturbance began to regenerate and La Réunion began issuing advisories on the regenerated system.[19] The redevelopment was short lived and Asma dissipated less than 24 hours later.[20]

Officials in Madagascar issued storm warnings as Tropical Storm Asma was forecast to make landfall in the northern portion of the island on October 23.[21] Despite warnings, residents did not take precautions before the storm.[22] Following the regeneration of Asma, the storm produced heavy rains over northern Madagascar which caused flooding in eight rural communities. One person was killed in Doany common rural district of Andapa. A total of 448 hectares of farmland were also inundated by floodwaters.[23] Six oxen and 24 pigs were also killed and three bridges were damaged. Following the damages caused by the storm, officials provided first aid kits, nine tons of rice, 100 cartons of soap, 60 cartons of clothing, 120 mosquito nets, 20 bags of pulses and 30 tents to the affected population.[24] The heavy rains were accompanied by winds gusting up to 70 km/h (43 mph).[25] After brushing Madagascar, Asma brought unseasonable heavy rains to parts of Mozambique and Tanzania.[26]

Moderate Tropical Storm Bernard

Moderate tropical storm
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Tropical storm
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Duration November 19 – November 21
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995 mbar (hPa)
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On November 15, a low pressure area was located about 795 km (495 mi) east-southeast of Diego Garcia, accompanied by persistent convection. It was centered east of a ridge and was within an area of moderate vertical wind shear.[27] Over the next several days, the system moved slowly eastward with little development.[28] On November 19, convection developed around the circulation after being nearly stationary for a few days. At 0600 UTC, Météo-France (MFR) designated the system as Tropical Disturbance 03,[29] about 695 km (430 mi) east-southeast of Diego Garcia.[28] As rainbands and outflow developed, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert.[30] Later that day, Météo-France upgraded the disturbance to a tropical depression.[31] About three hours later, the JTWC began issuing advisories on Tropical Cyclone 03S, although wind shear was forecast to prevent significant intensification.[32] Located to the northeast of a low to mid-level trough and to the southwest of a near-equatorial ridge, the system began to accelerate to the east.[28] At 0600 UTC on November 20, the JTWC assessed the system to have reached its peak intensity with winds of 75 km/h (45 mph 1-minute winds).[33] Shortly after, Météo-France upgraded the depression to Moderate Tropical Storm Bernard, with peak winds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[34]

Just six hours after being named,[28] Bernard was downgraded to a tropical depression as all associated deep convection dissipated.[35] The sudden decrease was caused by the storm's unusually fast movement of 50 km/h (31 mph) towards the east-southeast over cooler waters.[28] At the same time Météo-France downgraded Bernard to a depression, the JTWC issued their final advisory on Tropical Cyclone 03S as it had weakened below tropical storm status.[36] Early the next morning, Météo-France downgraded the system to a tropical disturbance and issued their final advisory on the dissipating cyclone.[37] The remnants of Bernard entered the Australia region, where it was briefly designated as Tropical Low 01U before dissipating.[28][38]

Severe Tropical Storm Cinda

Severe tropical storm
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Tropical storm
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Duration December 15 – December 21
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)
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On the evening of December 16, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation alert on a rapidly organizing disturbance located west of Diego Garcia. The low level centre continued to improve with convection wrapping into the centre and the JTWC upgraded the disturbance into a tropical storm, at the same time RSMC La Reunion designated the system a tropical depression. Under low shear and favourable upper level outflow, 04S was upgraded to Moderate Tropical Storm Cinda by RSMC La Reunion early on December 18. Soon after, Cinda was upgraded to a severe tropical storm as it moved south-southwestwards away from Diego Garcia. Later that same day, Cinda was downgraded to a moderate tropical storm. The wind shear kept the eye north of the convection. On the morning of December 21, Cinda degenerated into a remnant low about 250 miles off the coast of Madagascar amongst heavy wind shear.

Severe Tropical Storm Dongo

Severe tropical storm
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Tropical storm
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Duration January 8 – January 12
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  984 mbar (hPa)
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Mauritius Meteorological Services had been tracking the remnants of Tropical Cyclone Billy that formed in the Australia region in December as it entered the southwestern Indian Ocean in early January. On January 8 a new low formed north of the former tropical cyclone and was designated as an area of disturbed weather by Meteo France. By late morning, that day the system organized a little better to be classified as a tropical disturbance. On January 9, the system was upgraded to a tropical storm and given then name Dongo. Then in the early morning hours of January 10, Dongo was upgraded to a Moderate Tropical Storm. After that, it was upgraded to a Severe Tropical Storm. Then, on January 12, Dongo quickly moved south into harsher conditions and dissipated.

Moderate Tropical Storm Eric

Moderate tropical storm
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Tropical storm
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Duration January 17 – January 21
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  991 mbar (hPa)
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On January 17, the Meteo-France in Reunion identified a Zone of Disturbed Weather northeast of La Reunion. The following day the disturbance organized quite significantly west-northwest of Madagascar and Metéo-France classified it as a tropical disturbance. The disturbance intensified into a moderate tropical storm on the 19th. Eric crossed the coastline around Toamasina, which reported a surface low pressure of 992 hPa, mid morning on that day and skitted along the eastern Madagascar coast for much of the day before tracking southeast away from the coast on January 20. On January 20, the JTWC issued its final advisory on Eric, as it had been torn apart by the shear from the strong Fanele. Méteo France downgraded Eric to a tropical depression on January 21 noting it could re-deepen as it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.

Eric killed two people, injured 24, left 992 homeless, and affected an additional 7,606 in eastern Madagascar.[39] A total of 32 classrooms were destroyed by the storm, mainly UNICEF tents and 42 other classrooms were damaged.[40]

Intense Tropical Cyclone Fanele

Intense tropical cyclone
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Category 4 tropical cyclone
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Duration January 18 – January 23
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)
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On January 17, the JTWC identified a rapidly organizing tropical low just off the coast of Madagascar, near Antananarivo, in the Mozambique Channel. The system showed signs of a quickly developing surface low, and evidence of an upper-level Anticyclone creating a favorable environment for the system. Later that day, the JTWC assessed the possibility of the system becoming a tropical cyclone in 24 hours as Poor.[41] As the system continued to organize, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert early the next morning.[42] Soon afterward, the RSMC La Reunion designated the system as Tropical Disturbance 07.[43] The system was predicted to organize at regular speed and remain quasi-stationary within the next 24 hours and then recurve toward the Malagasy coast as a moderate tropical storm.[43] Six hours later, the RSMC La Reunion upgraded the system to Tropical Depression 07.[44][44] The next day, the tropical depression was upgraded to Moderate Tropical Storm Fanele and the JTWC upgraded it to Tropical Cyclone 09S. Later that day, Fanele continued to rapidly organize as it strengthened into a Severe Tropical Storm. Late on January 19, Fanele strengthened into a high-end Tropical Cyclone. It strengthened into an Intense Tropical Cyclone on the morning of January 20 with an intensity of 100 knot winds. Fanele made landfall between 00:00 am – 02:00 am UTC on January 21 and weakened to a Category 1 with 75 knot winds. Early in the morning of January 22, Fanele weakened to tropical depression as it exited into the Indian Ocean. It restrengthed back into a Moderate Tropical Storm, but it became extratropical the next day.

At least eight people were killed, two were left missing, and over 20,000 others were left homeless due to Fanele.

Intense Tropical Cyclone Gael

Intense tropical cyclone
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Category 4 tropical cyclone
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Duration February 1 – February 10
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)
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On February 1, RSMC La Reunion began issuing advisories on an area of disturbed weather newly formed in the central Indian Ocean. JTWC assessed the potential for the development of a significant tropical cyclone within next 24 hours as "poor". JTWC upgraded the disturbance's chances of forming into a tropical cyclone to "fair". On February 2, RSMC designated the area of disturbed weather as "Zone of Disturbed Weather 08. " Later that day JTWC upgraded the disturbance's chances to "good" and issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. Later that day RSMC La Reunion upgraded Zone of Disturbed Weather 08 into Tropical Disturbance 08. On February 3, JTWC was upgraded the system to Tropical Cyclone 13S, RSMC La Reunion redesignated Tropical Disturbance 08 to Moderate Tropical Storm Gael. Early next day on February 5, RSMC La Reunion was upgraded Moderate Tropical Storm Gael into Severe Tropical Storm Gael. The system quickly intensified that morning into a Tropical Cyclone north of Réunion Island in the early afternoon. Gael was upgraded to an Intense Tropical Cyclone in the evening on February 6. It held that strength for the next couple of days before weakening back to a Severe Tropical Storm. On February 10, the JTWC issued its final warning on Gael as it had transitioned into a cold-core system over the Southern Ocean which then merged with the extratropical remnants of Innis.

On February 3, Metéo-France issued a pre-cyclone alert (yellow alert) for the islands near Réunion.[45] The next day, Mauritius Meteorological Services issued their Cyclone Warning Class II as Gael approached northeast of the island.[46] Two fatalities occurred on Réunion as a result of heavy rain produced by Gael. A motorcyclist was swept away after trying to cross a submerged road. The other death occurred after a man, who was reportedly drunk, attempted to swim across a flooded road. He was overcome by the waters and swept away.[47] Officials in Madagascar warned the public about the possibility of torrential rains, mudslides, and significant property damage from Gael.[48]

Severe Tropical Storm Hina

Severe tropical storm
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Category 1 tropical cyclone
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Duration February 20 – February 24
Peak intensity 105 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  976 mbar (hPa)
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On February 20, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began issuing advisories on an area of disturbed weather newly formed in the central Indian Ocean. Later that day, JTWC assessed the disturbance's potential for the development of a significant tropical cyclone within next 24 hours as Poor. Early on February 21, JTWC upgraded the disturbance's chances of forming into a tropical cyclone from Poor to Fair. In the afternoon, JTWC upgraded the system to Good and issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. The JTWC then upgraded the disturbance to a Tropical Cyclone 16S, and it is forecast gradually move southwestward and strengthen for the next couple of days. It already began to show a defined organization with some convective banding that same day. Mauritius Meteorological Services upgraded the Zone of Disturbed Weather 09 intensifying to Moderate Tropical Storm and named it Hina. The next day, it became a Severe Tropical Storm. Later on February 25, Hina weakened to a Moderate Tropical Storm and then weakened to a tropical disturbance as wind shear removed all convection from the centre. Early on February 24, JTWC issued their final warning on 16S for the same reason.

Tropical Depression 10

Tropical depression
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Tropical storm
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Duration March 6 – March 10
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  997 mbar (hPa)
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On March 6, the JTWC began monitoring a newly formed area of disturbed weather in the central Indian Ocean, and two days later, they issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the disturbance and upgraded it to Zone of Disturbed Weather 10. On March 9, the disturbance was upgraded to a depression and was reclassified as Tropical Cyclone 19S. Wind shear strongly affected the system and caused it to dissipate in the early morning of March 10. The depression did not intensify to a tropical storm, it was the first to do so since the first disturbance of the season formed on October 6.

Severe Tropical Storm Izilda

Severe tropical storm
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Category 1 tropical cyclone
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Duration March 24 – March 27
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  978 mbar (hPa)
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A Tropical Disturbance formed in the Mozambique Channel around March 21 and on March 24 the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and designated the system Tropical Cyclone 24S. The system is expected to drift very slowly south then south-west, remaining quasi-stationary. Around midday on the 25th, Izilda was upgraded to a severe tropical storm with 65 mph winds. It remained at that intensity throughout the day, but land interaction with Madagascar and wind shear caused Izilda to dissipate later on the 27th.

Due to the proximity of Izilda to Madagascar, storm warnings were put in place for coastal areas between Morondava and Toliara. Fishermen were advised to remain at port due to large swells produced by the storm.[49] Officials in Mozambique feared that the storm would bring heavy rains to areas already suffering from severe flooding which has left over 4,000 people homeless. Fishermen in the country were also advised not to leave port due to the dangerous conditions.[50] As a tropical depression, Izilda passed near Europa Island; however, no damage was reported.[51] Izilda brought moderate rainfall to parts of southwest Madagascar and Europa Island.[52] Waves up to 8 m (26.2 ft) impacted coastal areas of Mozambique and Madagascar as Izilda stalled on March 25.[53]

Severe Tropical Storm Jade

Severe tropical storm
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Category 1 tropical cyclone
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Duration April 4 – April 11
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975 mbar (hPa)
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On April 4, an area of disturbed weather formed northeast of La Reunion. JTWC reported the disturbance's chance of forming into a tropical cyclone as "good" and issued Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert, and RSMC La Reunion began designating the system as Zone of Disturbed Weather 12. Later that day, JTWC upgraded the system to Tropical Cyclone 26S. Early next day, the disturbance intensified into Tropical Depression 12 as predicted by RSMC La Reunion. Later on that afternoon, RSMC La Reunion upgraded the tropical depression to a moderate tropical storm, naming it Jade. Later that evening, Jade was upgraded to a severe tropical storm. Jade made landfall near Antalaha, Madagascar between 06:00 am – 08:00 am UTC on April 6 and weakened to a moderate tropical storm. Soon after, Jade weakened to an overland depression. On April 7, Jade exited the coast of Madagascar. However, later that day, Jade reintensified into a moderate tropical storm. Then, on April 8, Jade was again upgraded to a severe tropical storm by La Reunion. The storm became nearly stationary southeast of Madagascar later that day. It became extratropical soon afterwards but was quite powerful reaching a central air pressure of 958 milibars.

Heavy rains from the cyclone in northern Madagascar caused a home to collapse, killing three people. At least 800 others were left homeless due to the storm in northern Madagascar.[54] Five other people were killed in a mudslide near Mananjary and another 3,320 were left homeless.[55] A ninth person was killed on April 9 during a landslide in Nosy Varika.[56] In all, Jade killed 15 people and left 22,900 others homeless throughout Madagascar.[57]

Storm names

Tropical disturbances were named upon reaching moderate tropical storm strength.[58] When a tropical disturbance reached this intensity west of 55°E, then the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre in Madagascar assigned the appropriate name to the storm. If it reached moderate tropical storm strength between 55°E and 90°E, then the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre in Mauritius named the storm.[58] New name lists are used every year, so no names are retired. The naming list for the 2008-09 South-West Indian Ocean was announced by Meteo-France on August 20, 2008 and is as follows:[59]

  • Jade
  • Kago (unused)
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  • Lisebo (unused)
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  • Magoma (unused)
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  • Newa (unused)
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  • Owami (unused)
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  • Pulane (unused)
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  • Qoli (unused)
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  • Rute (unused)
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  • Sama (unused)
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  • Tsholo (unused)
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  • Uzale (unused)
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  • Vimbai (unused)
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  • Wada (unused)
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  • Xylo (unused)
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  • Yamba (unused)
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  • Zita (unused)
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Season effects

This table lists all the storms that developed in the Southern Hemisphere during the 2008-2009 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. It includes their intensity, duration, name, landfalls, deaths, and damages. All data is taken from Météo-France. The damage figures are all from 2009 USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Peak 10 - minute
sustained winds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs


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01 October 6 — 8 Zone of Disturbed Weather 35 km/h (25 mph) 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) None None None [60]
Asma October 16 — 24 Moderate Tropical Storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 986 hPa (29.11 inHg) Northern Madagascar &100000000000000010000001 [61]
Bernard November 19 – 21 Moderate Tropical Storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 995 hPa (29.39 inHg) None None None
Cinda December 15 – 21 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) None None None
Dongo January 8–12 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 978 hPa (28.88 inHg) None None None
Eric January 17 – 21 Moderate Tropical Storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 991 hPa (29.27 inHg) Madagascar Minimal &100000000000000020000002
Fanele January 18 – 23 Intense tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Madagascar &1000000000000001000000010
Gael February 1 – 10 Intense tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Madagascar &100000000000000020000002
Hina February 20 – 24 Severe tropical storm 105 km/h (65 mph) 976 hPa (28.82 inHg) None None None
10 March 6 – 10 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 997 hPa (29.44 inHg) None None None
Izilda March 24 – 27 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 978 hPa (28.88 inHg) None None None
Jade April 4 – 11 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 975 hPa (28.50 inHg) Madagascar &1000000000000001500000015
Season Aggregates
12 systems October 6 – April 11   185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.47 inHg)   30


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See also

References

  1. Winter 2009 - Seasonal Outlook. Mauritius Meteorological Services (2009-05-06). Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  2. ABIO10 10-06-08 0730Z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (October 6, 2008). Retrieved on January 16, 2009.
  3. WTIO30 10-06-08 1200Z. Météo-France (October 6, 2008). Retrieved on January 16, 2009.
  4. WTIO20 10-07-08 1200Z. Météo-France (October 7, 2008). Retrieved on January 16, 2009.
  5. WTIO30 10-08-08 0600Z. Météo-France (October 8, 2008). Retrieved on January 16, 2009.
  6. Tropical cyclone Warning 16-10-2008 12z. RSMC La Reunion. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  7. TCFA 16-10-2008 16z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  8. Tropical cyclone warning 16-10-2008 21z. JTWC. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  9. Tropical cyclone Warning 17-10-2008 00z. RSMC La Reunion. Retrieved on 2008-10-17.
  10. Tropical cyclone Warning 18-10-2008 00z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
  11. Tropical cyclone Warning 19-10-2008 00z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  12. Tropical cyclone Warning 19-10-2008 18z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  13. Tropical cyclone Warning 20-10-2008 06z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  14. Tropical cyclone Warning 20-10-2008 12z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  15. Tropical cyclone Warning 20-10-2008 18z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  16. Tropical cyclone Warning 21-10-2008 06z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  17. Tropical cyclone Warning 21-10-2008 18z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  18. Tropical cyclone Warning 22-10-2008 06z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  19. Tropical cyclone Warning 22-10-2008 18z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  20. Tropical cyclone Warning 23-10-2008 12z. RSMC La Réunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-25.
  21. (French) Staff Writer (October 23, 2008). Asma diminue d'intensité. L'Express de Madagascar. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. Retrieved on March 30, 2009.
  22. (French) Noro Haingo Rakotoseheno (October 22, 2008). Madagascar: Le cyclone Asma s'approche d'Antsiranana. L'Express de Madagascar. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. Retrieved on March 30, 2009.
  23. (French) Staff Writer (November 4, 2008). Le cyclone Asma fait une victime à Andapa. L'Express de Madagascar. Retrieved on March 30, 2009.
  24. (French) Staff Writer (March 25, 2009). Cyclone Asma impact. Midi Madagasikara. Retrieved on March 30, 2009.
  25. (French) Staff Writer (October 23, 2008). Mayotte en alerte fortes pluies. Mayotte Times. Retrieved on March 30, 2008.[dead link]
  26. Staff Writer (October 30, 2008). Hazards Impacts Assessment for Africa (PDF). USAID. Retrieved on March 30, 2009.
  27. Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Indian Ocean 11-15-2008 00Z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 Gary Padgett (February 3, 2009). Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary for November 2008. Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  29. Tropical cyclone Warning 11-19-2008 06z. Météo-France. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  30. WTXS21 11-19-2008 08Z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  31. Tropical cyclone Warning 11-19-2008 18z. Météo-France. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  32. WTXS32 11-19-2008 21Z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  33. WTXS32 11-20-2008 09Z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  34. Tropical cyclone Warning 11-20-2008 12z. Météo-France. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  35. Tropical cyclone Warning 11-20-2008 18z. Météo-France. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  36. WTXS32 11-20-2008 21Z. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  37. Tropical cyclone Warning 11-21-2008 00z. Météo-France. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  38. High Seas Darwin 11-21-2008 00z. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved on February 8, 2009.
  39. Associated Press (January 21, 2009). Cyclone Fanele Hits West Coast of Madagascar. International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved on January 21, 2009.
  40. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2009-02-05). Cyclones Eric and Fanele Flash Situation Report. United Nations. Retrieved on 2009-03-18.
  41. Tropical Disturbance Summary for 1815 UTC January 17, 2009. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on 2009-01-18.
  42. Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert 0530 UTC January 18, 2009. JTWC. Retrieved on 2009-01-18.
  43. 43.0 43.1 RSMC La Reunion Advisory 1 for 07R. RSMC La Reunion. Retrieved on 2009-01-18.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Tropical Depression 07R Advisory 2. Retrieved on 2009-01-18.
  45. http://www.webcitation.org/5eJqi4gSz
  46. http://www.webcitation.org/5eLklKPqA
  47. (French) Staff Writer (February 8, 2009). Deux morts après le passage du cyclone Gaël à proximité de la Réunion. SFR. Retrieved on February 16, 2009.
  48. Swinden Group (2009). Tropical Cyclone Gael Will Strike Madagascar. PR-USA. Retrieved on February 7, 2009.
  49. (French) Staff Writer (March 26, 2009). Izilda se renforce momentanément. Clicanoo. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved on March 26, 2009.
  50. Associated Press (March 26, 2009). Floods hit Mozambique, 4,000 people left homeless. GMA Network Inc.. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved on March 26, 2009.
  51. (French) Staff Writer (March 25, 2009). Izilda, 9ème de la saison. Mayotte Weekly. Retrieved on March 26, 2009.
  52. (French) Staff Writer (March 25, 2009). Izilda dans le canal de Mozambique. Clicanoo. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved on March 26, 2009.
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  54. Agence France-Presse (April 8, 2009). Cyclone Jade kills three. Herald Sun. Retrieved on April 8, 2009.
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  56. AFP (April 10, 2009). Cyclone Jade kills nine in Madagascar. Associated Press. Retrieved on April 10, 2009.
  57. Daily Sun (April 17, 2009). Cyclone Jade: Death toll at 15. News 24 Africa. Retrieved on May 8, 2009.
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External links

Tropical cyclones of the 2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

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MFR Tropical Cyclone Scale
DIS TD MTS STS TC ITC VITC
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2000–2009 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons
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