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2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay was co-written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, and was partially inspired by Clarke's short story "The Sentinel". Clarke concurrently wrote the novel of the same name which was published soon after the film was released. The story deals with a series of encounters between humans and mysterious black monoliths that are apparently affecting human evolution, and a space voyage to Jupiter tracing a signal emitted by one such monolith found on the moon. Keir Dullea and Gary Lockwood star as the two astronauts on this voyage, with Douglas Rain as the voice of the sentient computer HAL 9000 who has full control over their spaceship. The film is frequently described as an "epic film", both for its length and scope, and for its affinity with classical epics.[2][3]

Produced and distributed by the American studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the film was made almost entirely in England, using both the studio facilities of MGM's subsidiary "MGM British" (among the last movies to be shot there before its closure in 1970)[4] and those of Shepperton Studios, mostly because of the availability of much larger sound stages than in the United States. The film was also co-produced by Kubrick's own "Stanley Kubrick Productions". Kubrick, having already shot his previous two films in England, decided to settle there permanently during the filming of Space Odyssey. Though Space Odyssey was released in the United States over a month before its release in the United Kingdom, and Encyclopædia Britannica calls this an American film,[5] other sources refer to it as an American, British, or American-British production.[6]

Thematically, the film deals with elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life. It is notable for its scientific accuracy, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.

The film has a memorable soundtrack—the result of the association that Kubrick made between the spinning motion of the satellites and the dancers of waltzes, which led him to use The Blue Danube waltz by Johann Strauss II,[7] and the symphonic poem Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss, to portray the philosophical concept of the Übermensch in Nietzsche's work of the same name.[8][9]

Despite initially receiving mixed reactions from critics and audiences alike, 2001: A Space Odyssey garnered a cult following and slowly became a box office hit. Some years after its initial release, it eventually became the highest grossing picture from 1968 in North America. Today it is near-universally recognized by critics, filmmakers, and audiences as one of the greatest and most influential films ever made. The 2002 Sight & Sound poll of critics ranked it among the top ten films of all time,[10] placing it #6 behind Tokyo Story. The film retained sixth place on the critics' list in 2012, and was named the second greatest film ever made by the directors' poll of the same magazine.[11] Two years before that, it was ranked the greatest film of all time by The Moving Arts Film Journal.[12] It was nominated for four Academy Awards, and received one for its visual effects. In 1991, it was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.[13]

In 1984, a sequel directed by Peter Hyams was produced titled 2010: The Year We Make Contact.

Plot

The film consists of four major sections, all of which, except the second, are introduced by superimposed titles.

The Dawn of Man

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A tribe of herbivorous early hominids is foraging for food in the African desert. A leopard kills one member, and another tribe of man-apes drives them from their water hole. Defeated, they sleep overnight in a small exposed rock crater, and awake to find a black monolith has appeared in front of them. They approach it shrieking and jumping, and eventually touch it cautiously. Soon after, one of the man-apes (Daniel Richter) realizes how to use a bone as both a tool and a weapon, which they start using to kill prey for their food. Growing increasingly capable and assertive, they reclaim control of the water hole from the other tribe by killing its leader. Triumphant, the tribe's leader throws his weapon-tool into the air as the scene shifts (via match cut) from the falling bone to an orbital satellite millions of years in the future.[15][16]

TMA-1

A Pan Am space plane carries Dr. Heywood R. Floyd (William Sylvester) to a space station orbiting Earth for a layover on his trip to Clavius Base, a US outpost on the Moon. After making a videophone call from the station to his daughter (Vivian Kubrick), he encounters his friend Elena (Margaret Tyzack), a Russian scientist, and her colleague Dr. Smyslov (Leonard Rossiter), who ask Floyd about "odd things" occurring at Clavius, and the rumor of a mysterious epidemic at the base. Floyd politely but firmly declines to answer any questions about the epidemic, claiming he is "not at liberty to discuss this".

At Clavius, Floyd heads a meeting of base personnel, apologizing for the epidemic cover story but stressing secrecy. His mission is to investigate a recently found artifact—"Tycho Magnetic Anomaly One" (TMA-1)—"deliberately buried" four million years ago. Floyd and others ride in a Moonbus to the artifact, a black monolith identical to the one encountered by the apes. The visitors examine the monolith, and pose for a photo in front of it. While doing so, they hear a very loud high-pitched radio signal emanating from within the monolith.

Jupiter Mission

Eighteen months later, the American spaceship Discovery One is bound for Jupiter. On board are mission pilots and scientists Dr. David Bowman (Keir Dullea) and Dr. Frank Poole (Gary Lockwood), and three other scientists who are in cryogenic hibernation. Most of Discovery's operations are controlled by the ship's computer, HAL 9000 (voiced by Douglas Rain), or simply "Hal", as the crew call it. While Bowman and Poole watch Hal and themselves being interviewed in a BBC show about the mission, the computer states that he is "foolproof and incapable of error." Hal also speaks of its enthusiasm for the mission, and how he enjoys working with humans. When asked by the host if Hal has genuine emotions, Bowman replies that he appears to, but that the truth is unknown.

Hal asks Bowman about the unusual mystery and secrecy surrounding the mission, but then interrupts himself to report the imminent failure of a device which controls the ship's main antenna. After retrieving the component with an EVA pod, the astronauts cannot find anything wrong with it. Hal suggests reinstalling the part and letting it fail so the problem can be found. Mission control concurs, but advises the astronauts that results from their twin Hal 9000 indicate the ship's Hal is in error predicting the fault. When queried, Hal insists that the problem, like all previous issues with the HAL series, is due to "human error". Concerned about Hal's behavior, Bowman and Poole enter one of the EVA pods to talk without the computer overhearing them. They both have suspicions about Hal, despite the perfect reliability of the HAL series, but they decide to follow its suggestion to replace the unit. As the astronauts agree to disconnect Hal if it is proven to be wrong, they are unaware that Hal is reading their lips through the pod's window.

While Poole is attempting to replace the unit during a spacewalk, his EVA pod, controlled by Hal, severs his oxygen hose and sets him adrift. Bowman, not realizing the computer is responsible for this, takes another pod to attempt a rescue, leaving his helmet behind. While he is gone, Hal turns off the life-support functions of the crewmen in suspended animation. When Bowman returns to the ship with Poole's body, Hal refuses to let him in, stating that the astronaut's plan to deactivate him jeopardizes the mission. Bowman manually opens the ship's emergency airlock and bodily enters the ship risking death from exposure to a vacuum. After donning a helmet, Bowman proceeds to Hal's processor core intent on disconnecting most of the functions of the computer. Hal first tries to reassure Dave, then pleads with him to stop, and finally begins to express fear—all in a steady monotone voice. Dave ignores him and disconnects each of the computer's processor modules. Hal eventually regresses to his earliest programmed memory, the song "Daisy Bell", which he sings for Bowman.

When the computer is finally disconnected, a prerecorded video message from Floyd plays. In it, he reveals the existence of the four million-year-old black monolith on the Moon, "its origin and purpose still a total mystery". Floyd adds that it has remained completely inert, except for a single, very powerful radio emission aimed at Jupiter.

Jupiter and Beyond the Infinite

At Jupiter, Bowman leaves Discovery One in an EVA pod and finds another monolith in orbit around the planet. Approaching it, the pod is suddenly pulled into a tunnel of colored light,[17] and a disoriented and terrified Bowman finds himself racing at great speed across vast distances of space, viewing bizarre cosmological phenomena and strange alien landscapes of unusual colors. He finds himself, middle-aged and still in his spacesuit, standing in a bedroom appointed in the Louis XVI-style. Bowman sees progressively older versions of himself, his point of view switching each time, alternately appearing formally dressed and eating dinner, and finally as a very elderly man lying in a bed. A black monolith appears at the foot of the bed, and as Bowman reaches for it, he is transformed into a fetus-like being enclosed in a transparent orb of light.[18] The new being floats in space beside the Earth, gazing at it.

Cast

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Development

Writing

Kubrick and Clarke meet

Shortly after completing Dr. Strangelove (1964), Stanley Kubrick became fascinated by the possibility of extraterrestrial life,[20] and determined to make "the proverbial good science fiction movie".[21] Searching for a suitable collaborator in the science fiction community, Kubrick was advised to seek out the noted science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke by a mutual acquaintance, Columbia Pictures staffer Roger Caras. Although convinced that Clarke was "a recluse, a nut who lives in a tree", Kubrick agreed that Caras would cable the Ceylon-based author with the film proposal. Clarke's cabled response stated that he was "frightfully interested in working with enfant terrible", and added "what makes Kubrick think I'm a recluse?"[22] Meeting for the first time at Trader Vic's in New York on April 22, 1964, the two began discussing the project that would take up the next four years of their lives.[23]

Search for source material

Kubrick told Clarke he was searching for the best way to make a movie about Man's relation to the universe, and was, in Clarke's words, "determined to create a work of art which would arouse the emotions of wonder, awe,...even, if appropriate, terror".[24] Clarke offered Kubrick six of his short stories, and by May, Kubrick had chosen one of them—"The Sentinel"—as source matter for his film. In search of more material to expand the film's plot, the two spent the rest of 1964 reading books on science and anthropology, screening science fiction movies, and brainstorming ideas.[25] Clarke and Kubrick spent two years transforming "The Sentinel" into a novel, and then into a script for 2001.[26] Clarke notes that his short story "Encounter in the Dawn" inspired the "Dawn Of Man" sequence in 2001.[27]

At first, Kubrick and Clarke privately referred to their project as How the Solar System Was Won as an homage to MGM's 1962 Cinerama epic, How the West Was Won. However, Kubrick chose to announce the project, in a press release issued on February 23, 1965, as Journey Beyond The Stars.[28] "Other titles which we ran up and failed to salute were Universe, Tunnel to the Stars, and Planetfall", Clarke wrote in his book The Lost Worlds of 2001. "It was not until eleven months after we started—April 1965—that Stanley selected 2001: A Space Odyssey. As far as I can recall, it was entirely his idea."[29] Intending to set the film apart from the standard "monsters and sex" type of science-fiction movies of the time, Kubrick used Homer's The Odyssey as inspiration for the title. "It occurred to us", he said, "that for the Greeks the vast stretches of the sea must have had the same sort of mystery and remoteness that space has for our generation".[30]

Parallel development of film and novelization

The collaborators originally planned to develop a novel first, free of the constraints of a normal script, and then to write the screenplay; they envisaged that the final writing credits would be "Screenplay by Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, based on a novel by Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick" to reflect their preeminence in their respective fields.[31] In practice, however, the cinematic ideas required for the screenplay developed parallel to the novel, with cross-fertilization between the two. In a 1970 interview with Joseph Gelmis, Kubrick explained:

There are a number of differences between the book and the movie. The novel, for example, attempts to explain things much more explicitly than the film does, which is inevitable in a verbal medium. The novel came about after we did a 130-page prose treatment of the film at the very outset. This initial treatment was subsequently changed in the screenplay, and the screenplay in turn was altered during the making of the film. But Arthur took all the existing material, plus an impression of some of the rushes, and wrote the novel. As a result, there's a difference between the novel and the film...I think that the divergences between the two works are interesting.[32]

In the end, the screenplay credits were shared while the novel, released shortly after the film, was attributed to Clarke alone, but Clarke wrote later that "the nearest approximation to the complicated truth" is that the screenplay should be credited to "Kubrick and Clarke" and the novel to "Clarke and Kubrick".[33]

Clarke and Kubrick wrote the novel and screenplay simultaneously, but while Clarke ultimately opted for clearer explanations of the mysterious monolith and Star Gate in his book, Kubrick chose to make his film more cryptic and enigmatic by keeping dialogue and specific explanations to a minimum.[9] "2001", Kubrick says, "is basically a visual, nonverbal experience" that avoids the spoken word in order to reach the viewer's subconscious in an essentially poetic and philosophic way. The film is a subjective experience which "hits the viewer at an inner level of consciousness, just as music does, or painting".[34]

Depiction of alien life

Astronomer Carl Sagan wrote in his book, The Cosmic Connection, that Clarke and Kubrick asked his opinion on how to best depict extraterrestrial intelligence. Sagan, while acknowledging Kubrick's desire to use actors to portray humanoid aliens for convenience's sake, argued that alien life forms were unlikely to bear any resemblance to terrestrial life, and that to do so would introduce "at least an element of falseness" to the film. Sagan proposed that the film suggest, rather than depict, extraterrestrial superintelligence. He attended the premiere and was "pleased to see that I had been of some help."[35] Kubrick hinted at the nature of the mysterious unseen alien race in 2001 by suggesting, in a 1968 interview, that given millions of years of evolution, they progressed from biological beings to "immortal machine entities", and then into "beings of pure energy and spirit"; beings with "limitless capabilities and ungraspable intelligence".[36]

Stages of script and novel development

Arthur C. Clarke kept a diary throughout his involvement with 2001, excerpts of which were published in 1972 as The Lost Worlds of 2001. The script went through many stages of development in which various plot ideas were considered and subsequently discarded. Early in 1965, right when backing was secured for Journey Beyond the Stars, the writers still had no firm idea of what would happen to Bowman after the Star Gate sequence, though as early as October 17, 1964 Kubrick had come up with what Clarke called a "wild idea of slightly fag robots who create a Victorian environment to put our heroes at their ease".[33] Initially all of Discovery's astronauts were to survive the journey; a decision to leave Bowman as the sole survivor and have him regress to infancy was agreed by October 3, 1965. The computer HAL 9000 was originally to have been named "Athena", after the Greek goddess of wisdom, with a feminine voice and persona.[33]

Early drafts included a short prologue containing interviews with scientists about extraterrestrial life,[37] voice-over narration (a feature in all of Kubrick's previous films),[38] a stronger emphasis on the prevailing Cold War balance of terror, a slightly different and more explicitly explained scenario for Hal's breakdown,[39][40][41] and a differently envisaged monolith for the "Dawn of Man" sequence. The last three of these survived into Arthur C. Clarke's final novel, which also retained an earlier draft's employment of Saturn as the final destination of the Discovery mission rather than Jupiter, and the discarded finale of the Star Child exploding nuclear weapons carried by Earth-orbiting satellites.[41] Clarke had suggested this finale to Kubrick, jokingly calling it "Son of Dr. Strangelove"; a reference to Kubrick's previous film. Feeling that this conclusion's similarity to that of his previous film would be detrimental, Kubrick opted for a more pacific conclusion.[37]

Some changes were made simply due to the logistics of filming. Early prototypes of the monolith did not photograph well, while the special effects team was unable to develop a convincing rendition of Saturn's rings; hence the switch to Jupiter.[42] (In his foreword to the 1990 edition of the novel, Clarke noted that if they had remained with Saturn, the film would have become far more dated as Voyager revealed that Saturn's rings were far more visually bizarre in closeup than anyone had imagined.) Other changes were made due to Stanley Kubrick's increasing desire to make the film more non-verbal, reaching the viewer at a visual and visceral level rather than through conventional narrative.[43] Vincent LeBrutto notes that Clarke's novel has "strong narrative structure" which fleshes out the story, while the film is a mainly visual experience where much remains "symbolic".[44]

Remnants of early drafts in final film

While many ideas were discarded in totality, at least two remnants of previous plot ideas remain in the final film.

Hal's breakdown

While the film leaves it mysterious, early script drafts spell out that Hal's breakdown is triggered by authorities on Earth who had ordered it to withhold information from the astronauts about the true purpose of the mission. (This is also explained in the film's sequel 2010.) Frederick Ordway, Kubrick's science advisor and technical consultant, working from personal copies of early drafts, stated that in an earlier version, Poole tells Hal there is "...something about this mission that we weren't told. Something the rest of the crew knows and that you know. We would like to know whether this is true", to which HAL enigmatically responds: "I'm sorry, Frank, but I don't think I can answer that question without knowing everything that all of you know."[39] In this version, Hal then falsely predicts a failure of the hardware maintaining radio contact with the Earth (the source of Hal's difficult orders) during the broadcast of Frank Poole's birthday greetings from his parents.

While the film drops this overt explanation, it is hinted at when Hal asks David Bowman if the latter feels bothered or disturbed by the "mysteries" and "secrecy" surrounding the mission and its preparations. After Bowman concludes that Hal is dutifully drawing up the "crew psychology report", the computer then makes its false prediction of hardware failure.

In an interview with Joseph Gelmis in 1969, Kubrick simply stated that "[Hal] had an acute emotional crisis because he could not accept evidence of his own fallibility"[45]

Military nature of orbiting satellites

Another holdover of discarded plot ideas is with regard to the famous match-cut from prehistoric bone-weapon to orbiting satellite, followed sequentially by views of three more satellites. At first, Kubrick planned to have a narrator state explicitly that these were armed nuclear weapon platforms while speaking of a nuclear stalemate between the superpowers.[46]

This would have foreshadowed the now-discarded conclusion of the film showing the Star Child's detonating all of them.[47] Piers Bizony, in his book 2001 Filming The Future, stated that after ordering designs for orbiting nuclear weapon platforms, Kubrick became convinced to avoid too many associations with Dr. Strangelove, and he decided not to make it so obvious that they were "war machines".[48]

Alexander Walker, in a book he wrote with Kubrick's assistance and authorization, described the bone as "transformed into a spacecraft of the year A.D. 2001 as it orbits in the blackness around Earth", and he stated that Kubrick eliminated from his film the theme of a nuclear stalemate between the United States and the Soviet Union, each with globe-orbiting nuclear weapons. Kubrick now thought this had "no place at all in the film's thematic development", with the bombs now becoming an "orbiting red herring". Walker further noted that some filmgoers in 1968-69 would know that an agreement had been reached in 1967 between the powers not to put any nuclear weapons into outer space, and that if the film suggested otherwise, it would "merely have raised irrelevant questions to suggest this as a reality of the twenty-first century".[49]

In the Canadian TV documentary 2001 and Beyond, Dr. Clarke stated that not only was the military purpose of the satellites "not spelled out in the film, there is no need for it to be", repeating later in this documentary that "Stanley didn't want to have anything to do with bombs after Dr. Strangelove".[50]

In a New York Times interview in 1968, Kubrick merely referred to the satellites as "spacecraft", as does the interviewer, but he observed that the match-cut from bone to spacecraft shows they evolved from "bone-as-weapon", stating "It's simply an observable fact that all of man's technology grew out of his discovery of the weapon-tool".[51]

Nothing in the film calls attention to the purpose of the satellites. James John Griffith, in a footnote in his book Adaptations As Imitations: Films from Novels, wrote "I would wonder, for instance, how several critics, commenting on the match-cut that links humanity's prehistory and future, can identify — without reference to Clarke's novel — the satellite as a nuclear weapon".[52]

Arthur C. Clarke, in the TV documentary "2001: The Making Of A Myth", described the bone-to-satellite sequence in the film, saying "The bone goes up and turns into what is supposed to be an orbiting space bomb, a weapon in space. Well, that isn't made clear, we just assume it's some kind of space vehicle in a three-million-year jump cut".[53][54] Former NASA research assistant Steven Pietrobon[55] wrote "The orbital craft seen as we make the leap from the Dawn of Man to contemporary times are supposed to be weapons platforms carrying nuclear devices, though the movie does not make this clear."[56]

The vast majority of film critics, including noted Kubrick authority Michel Ciment,[57] interpreted the satellites as generic spacecraft (possibly Moon bound).[58]

The perception that the satellites are nuclear weapons persists in the minds of some viewers (and some space scientists). However, due to their appearance there are statements by members of the production staff who still refer to them as weapons. Walker, in his book Stanley Kubrick, Director, noted that although the bombs no longer fit in with Kubrick's revised thematic concerns (thus becoming "red herrings"), "nevertheless from the national markings still visible on the first and second space vehicles we see, we can surmise that they are the Russian and American bombs."[59]

Similarly, Walker in a later essay[60] stated that two of the spacecraft seen circling Earth were meant to be nuclear weapons, after asserting that early scenes of the film "imply" nuclear stalemate. Pietrobon, who was a consultant on 2001 to the Web site Starship Modeler regarding the film's props, observes small details on the satellites such as Air Force insignia and "cannons".[61]

In the film, U.S. Air Force insignia, and flag insignia of China and Germany (including what appears to be an Iron Cross) can be seen on three of the satellites,[62] which correspond to three of the bombs stated countries of origin in a widely circulated early draft of the script.[63]

File:2001Satellite.jpg

Production staff who continue to refer to "bombs" (in addition to Clarke) include production designer Harry Lange (previously a space industry illustrator), who has since the film's release shown his original production sketches for all of the spacecraft to Simon Atkinson, who refers to seeing "the orbiting bombs".[64] Fred Ordway, the film's science consultant, sent a memo to Kubrick after the film's release listing suggested changes to the film, mostly complaining about missing narration and shortened scenes. One entry reads: "Without warning, we cut to the orbiting bombs. And to a short, introductory narration, missing in the present version".[39] Multiple production staff aided in the writing of Jerome Agel's 1970 book on the making of the film, in which captions describe the objects as "orbiting satellites carrying nuclear weapons"[65] Actor Gary Lockwood (astronaut Frank Poole) in the audio DVD commentary[66] says the first satellite is an armed weapon, thus making the famous match-cut from bone to satellite a "weapon-to-weapon cut". Several recent reviews of the film mostly of the DVD release refer to armed satellites,[67] possibly influenced by Gary Lockwood's audio commentary.

A few published works by scientists on the subject of space exploration or space weapons tangentially discuss 2001: A Space Odyssey and assume at least some of the orbiting satellites are space weapons.[68][69] Indeed, details worked out with input from space industry experts, such as the structure on the first satellite that Pietrobon refers to as a "conning tower", match the original concept sketch drawn for the nuclear bomb platform.[56][70] Modelers label them in diverse ways. On the one hand, the 2001 exhibit (given in that year) at the Tech Museum in San Jose and now online (for a subscription) referred merely to "satellites",[71] while a special modeling exhibition at the exhibition hall at Porte de Versailles in Paris also held in 2001 (called 2001 l'odyssée des maquettes (2001: A Modeler's Odyssey)) overtly described their reconstructions of the first satellite as the "US Orbiting Weapons Platform".[72] Some, but not all, space model manufacturers or amateur model builders refer to these entities as bombs.[73]

How one views the satellites may affect one's reading of the film. Noted Kubrick authority Michel Ciment, in discussing Kubrick's attitude toward human aggression and instinct, observes "The bone cast into the air by the ape (now become a man) is transformed at the other extreme of civilization, by one of those abrupt ellipses characteristic of the director, into a spacecraft on its way to the moon."[74] In contrast to Ciment's reading of a cut to a serene "other extreme of civilization", science fiction novelist Robert Sawyer, speaking in the Canadian documentary 2001 and Beyond, sees it as a cut from a bone to a nuclear weapons platform, explaining that "what we see is not how far we've leaped ahead, what we see is that today, '2001', and four million years ago on the African veldt, it's exactly the same—the power of mankind is the power of its weapons. It's a continuation, not a discontinuity in that jump."[50]

Kubrick, notoriously reluctant to provide any explanation of his work, never publicly stated the intended functions of the orbiting satellites, preferring instead to let the viewer surmise what their purpose might be.

Dialogue

Alongside its use of music, the lack of dialogue and conventional narrative cues in 2001 has been noted by many reviewers.[75] There is no dialogue at all for the entirety of both the first and last 20 minutes or so of the film; the total narrative of these sections is carried entirely by images, actions, sound effects, a great deal of music (See Music) and two title cards. The first line of dialogue is the space-station stewardess addressing Heywood Floyd saying "Here you are, sir. Main level D." The final line is Floyd's conclusion of the pre-recorded Jupiter mission briefing about the monolith. "Except for a single, very powerful radio emission, aimed at Jupiter, the four-million-year-old black monolith has remained completely inert, its origin — and purpose — still a total mystery."

Only when the film moves into the postulated future of 2000 and 2001, does the viewer encounter characters who speak. By the time shooting began, Kubrick had deliberately jettisoned much of the intended dialogue and narration and what remains is notable for its apparent banality (making the computer Hal seem to have more human emotion than the actual humans), while it is juxtaposed with epic scenes of space.[76] The first scenes of dialogue are Floyd's three encounters on the space station. They are preceded by the space docking sequence choreographed to Strauss' The Blue Danube waltz and followed by a second extended sequence of his travel to the Moon with more Strauss, the two sequences acting as bookends to his space-station stopover. In the stopover itself, we get idle chit-chat with the colleague who greets him followed by Floyd's slightly more affectionate phone call to his daughter, and the distantly friendly but awkwardly strained encounter with Soviet scientists. Later, en route to the monolith, Floyd engages in trite exchanges with his staff while we see a spectacular journey by Earthlight across the Moon's surface. Generally, the most memorable dialogue in the film belongs to the computer Hal in its exchanges with David Bowman.[77] Hal is the only character in the film who openly expresses anxiety (primarily around his disconnection), as well as feelings of pride and bewilderment.

Speculation on sources

The Russian documentary film maker Pavel Klushantsev made a groundbreaking film in the 1950s entitled Road to the Stars. It is believed to have significantly influenced Kubrick's technique in 2001: A Space Odyssey, particularly in its accurate depiction of weightlessness and a rotating space station. Encyclopedia Astronautica describes some scenes from 2001 as a "shot-for-shot duplication of Road to the Stars".[78] Specific comparisons of shots from the two films have been analyzed by the filmmaker Alessandro Cima.[79] A 1994 article in American Cinematographer says, "When Stanley Kubrick made '2001: a Space Odyssey' in 1968, he claimed to have been first to fly actor/astronauts on wires with the camera on the ground, shooting vertically while the actor's body covered the wires" but observes that Klushantsev had preceded him in this.[80]

Art critics have noticed the similarities between Kubrick's monolith and a recurring monolith motif in the artwork of French painter Georges Yatrides. Arthur Conte suggests that Yatrides "Adolescent and child" canvas painted in 1963 has a slab remarkably similar to that of Kubrick.[81][82] In Yatrides artwork, the monolith acts as a mystical symbol, mediating superior knowledge. Sacha Bourmeyster a semiology specialist, states[83] that the Yatrides slab communicates supernatural life in a manner similar to that in 2001. Sacha Bourmeyster has also noted the similarity in his book Interstellar Icons.[82][84] Similarities between Yatrides art and Kubrick's monolith have also been noted in the French architecture website CYBERARCHItecte.[85]

Production

Filming

Principal photography began December 29, 1965, in Stage H at Shepperton Studios, Shepperton, England. The studio was chosen because it could house the 60'x 120'x 60' pit for the Tycho crater excavation scene, the first to be shot.[86][87] The production moved in January 1966 to the smaller MGM-British Studios in Borehamwood, where the live action and special effects filming was done, starting with the scenes involving Floyd on the Orion spaceplane;[88] it was described as a "huge throbbing nerve center... with much the same frenetic atmosphere as a Cape Kennedy blockhouse during the final stages of Countdown."[89] The only scene not filmed in a studio—and the last live-action scene shot for the film—was the skull-smashing sequence, in which Moonwatcher (Richter) wields his new-found bone "weapon-tool" against a pile of nearby animal bones. A small elevated platform was built in a field near the studio so that the camera could shoot upward with the sky as background, avoiding cars and trucks passing by in the distance.[19][90]

Filming of actors was completed in September 1967,[91] and from June 1966 until March 1968 Kubrick spent most of his time working on the 205 special effects shots in the film.[92] The director ordered the special effects technicians on 2001 to use the painstaking process of creating all visual effects seen in the film "in camera", avoiding degraded picture quality from the use of blue screen and traveling matte techniques. Although this technique, known as "held takes", resulted in a much better image, it meant exposed film would be stored for long periods of time between shots, sometimes as long as a year.[93] In March 1968, Kubrick finished the 'pre-premiere' editing of the film, making his final cuts just days before the film's general release in April 1968.[92]

The film was initially planned to be photographed in 3-film-strip Cinerama (like How the West Was Won), because it was a part of a production/distribution deal between MGM and Cinerama Releasing corporation, but that was changed to Super Panavision 70 (which uses a single-strip 65 mm negative) on the advice of special photographic effects supervisor Douglas Trumbull, due to distortion problems with the 3-strip system.[94] Color processing and 35 mm release prints were done using Technicolor's dye transfer process. The 70 mm prints were made by MGM Laboratories, Inc. on Metrocolor. The production was $4.5 million over the initial $6.0 million budget, and sixteen months behind schedule.[87]

Set design and furnishings

Kubrick involved himself in every aspect of production, even choosing the fabric for his actors' costumes,[95] and selecting notable pieces of contemporary furniture for use in the film. When Floyd exits the Space Station V elevator, he is greeted by an attendant seated behind a slightly modified George Nelson Action Office desk from Herman Miller's 1964 "Action Office" series.[96] First introduced in 1968, the Action Office style "cubicle" would eventually occupy 70 percent of office space by the mid-2000s.[97][98] Noted Danish designer Arne Jacobsen designed the cutlery used by the Discovery astronauts in the film.[99][100][101]

Perhaps the most noted pieces of furniture in the film are the bright red Djinn Chairs seen prominently throughout the Space Station.[102][103] Designed by Olivier Mourgue in 1965, the Djinn chair is one of the most recognizable chair designs of the 1960s, at least partly due to their visibility in the film.[102] Today the chairs, particularly in red, are highly sought-after examples of modern furniture design.[102] Near the Djinn chairs the actors in the film are seated in is one of Eero Saarinen's 1956 pedestal tables, another famous piece of "modern" design. The pedestal table would later make an appearance in another science fiction film, Men in Black.[102] Mourgue has been using the connection to 2001 in his advertising; a frame from the film's space station sequence and three production stills appear on the homepage of Mourgue's website.[104] Shortly before Kubrick's death, film critic Alexander Walker informed Kubrick of Mourgue's use of the film, joking to him "You're keeping the price up".[105] Commenting on their use in the film, Walker writes:
Everyone recalls one early sequence in the film, the space hotel,[106] primarily because the custom-made Olivier Morgue [sic] furnishings, those foam-filled sofas, undulant and serpentine, are covered in scarlet fabric and are the first stabs of color one sees. They resemble Rorschach "blots" against the pristine purity of the rest of the lobby.[107]

Detailed instructions in relatively small print for various technological devices appear at several points in the film, the most notable of which is the lengthy instructions for the zero-gravity toilet on the Aries Moon shuttle. Similar detailed instructions for replacing the explosive bolts also appear on the hatches of the EVA pods, most visibly in closeup just before Bowman's pod leaves the ship to rescue Frank Poole.[108]

Special effects

The first director to use front projection with retroreflective matting in a mainstream movie, Kubrick chose the technique to produce the backdrops for the African scenes showing ape-men against vast natural-terrain backgrounds, as traditional techniques such as painted backdrops or rear-projection did not produce the realistic look Kubrick demanded. In addition to the "Dawn of Man" sequence, the front-projection system was used to depict astronauts walking on the lunar surface with the Moon base in the background.[109] The technique has been used widely in the film industry since 2001 pioneered its use, although starting in the 1990s it has been increasingly replaced by green screen systems.

The front projection technique used by Kubrick consisted of a separate scenery projector set precisely at a right angle to the camera, and a half-silvered mirror placed at an angle in front of the camera that reflected the projected image forward, directly in line with the camera lens, onto a backdrop made of specially designed retroreflective material. The highly reflective and extremely directional screen behind the actors was capable of reflecting light from the projected image 100 times more efficiently than did the foreground subject. The lighting of the foreground subject then had to be balanced with that of the image from the screen, rendering the image from the scenery projector on the subject too faint to record. Kubrick noted that an exception was the eyes of the leopard in the "Dawn of Man" sequence, which glowed orange as a result of illumination by the scenery projector. He described this as "a happy accident".[110]

Front projection had been used in smaller settings before 2001, mostly for still-photography or television production, using small still images and projectors. The expansive backdrops for the African scenes required a screen 40 feet tall and 110 feet wide, far larger than had ever been used before. When the reflective material was applied to the backdrop in 100-foot strips, however, they discovered variations at the seams of the strips led to obvious visual artifacts, a problem that was solved by tearing the material into smaller chunks and applying them in a random "camouflage" pattern on the backdrop. The existing projectors using 4 by 5 inch transparencies resulted in grainy images when projected that large, so the 2001 team worked with MGM's Special Effects Supervisor, Tom Howard, to build a custom projector using 8 by 10 inch transparencies, which required the largest water-cooled arc lamp available.[110]

Other "in-camera" shots were scenes depicting spacecraft moving through space. The camera used to shoot the stationary model of the Discovery One spacecraft was driven along a track on a special mount, the motor of which was mechanically linked to the camera motor—making it possible to repeat camera moves and match speeds exactly. On the first pass, the model was unlit, masking the star-field behind it. The camera and film were returned to the start position, and on the second pass, the model was lit without the star field. For shots also showing the interior of the ship, a third pass was made with previously-filmed live-action scenes projected onto rear-projection screens in the model's windows. The result was a film negative image that was exceptionally sharper and clearer than a typical visual effects of the time.[111]

File:2001 CENTRIFUGE SET.jpg
For interior shots inside the spacecraft, ostensibly containing a giant centrifuge that produces artificial gravity, Kubrick had a 30-ton rotating "ferris wheel" built by Vickers-Armstrong Engineering Group at a cost of $750,000. The set was 38 feet in diameter and 10 feet wide.[112] Various scenes in the Discovery centrifuge were shot by securing set pieces within the wheel, then rotating it while the actor walked or ran in sync with its motion, keeping him at the bottom of the wheel as it turned. The camera could be fixed to the inside of the rotating wheel to show the actor walking completely "around" the set, or mounted in such a way that the wheel rotated independently of the stationary camera, as in the famous jogging scene where the camera appears to alternately precede and follow the running actor. The shots where the actors appear on opposite sides of the wheel required one of the actors to be strapped securely into place at the "top" of the wheel as it moved to allow the other actor to walk to the "bottom" of the wheel to join him. The most notable case is when Bowman enters the centrifuge from the central hub on a ladder, and joins Poole, who is eating on the other side of the centrifuge. This required Gary Lockwood to be strapped into a seat while Keir Dullea walked toward him from the opposite side of the wheel as it turned with him.[113]

Another rotating set appeared in an earlier sequence on board the Aries trans-lunar shuttle. A stewardess is shown preparing in-flight meals, then carrying them into a circular walkway. Attached to the set as it rotates 180 degrees, the camera's point of view remains constant, and she appears to walk up the "side" of the circular walkway, and steps, now in an "upside-down" orientation, into a connecting hallway.[114]

The realistic-looking effects of the astronauts floating weightless in space and inside the spacecraft were accomplished by suspending the actors from wires attached to the top of the set, with the camera underneath them pointing up. The actors' bodies blocked the camera's view of the suspension wires, creating a very believable appearance of floating. For the shot of Poole floating into the pod's arms during Bowman's rescue attempt, a stuntman replaced a dummy on the wire to realistically portray the movements of an unconscious human, and was shot in slow motion to enhance the illusion of drifting through space.[115] The scene showing Bowman entering the emergency airlock from the EVA pod was done in a similar way, with an off-camera stagehand, standing on a platform, holding the wire suspending Dullea above the camera positioned at the bottom of the vertically configured airlock. At the proper moment, the stagehand first loosened his grip on the wire, causing Dullea to fall toward the camera, then, while holding the wire firmly, he jumped off the platform, causing Dullea to ascend back up toward the hatch.[66]

File:Star Gate.JPG

The colored lights in the Star Gate sequence were accomplished by slit-scan photography of thousands of high-contrast images on film, including op-art paintings, architectural drawings, moire patterns, printed circuits, and crystal structures. Known to staff as "Manhattan Project", the shots of various nebula-like phenomena, including the expanding star field, were colored paints and chemicals swirling in a pool-like device known as a cloud tank, shot in slow-motion in a dark room.[116] The live-action landscape shots in the 'Star Gate' sequence were filmed in the Hebridean islands, the mountains of northern Scotland, and Monument Valley (U.S.A.). The strange coloring and negative-image effects in these shots were achieved by the use of different color filters in the process of making dupe negatives.[117]

An article by Douglas Trumbull about the creation of special effects for 2001 appears in the June 1968 issue of American Cinematographer.[118]

Deleted scenes

Kubrick filmed several scenes that were deleted from the final film. These fall into two categories: scenes cut before any public screenings of the film, and scenes cut a few days after the world premiere on April 2, 1968.[119]

The first ('pre-premiere') set of cuts includes a schoolroom on the Moon base—a painting class that included Kubrick's daughters, additional scenes of life on the base, and Floyd buying a bush baby from a department store via videophone for his daughter. The most notable cut was a 10-minute black-and-white opening sequence featuring interviews with actual scientists, including Freeman Dyson,[120] discussing extraterrestrial life, which Kubrick removed after an early screening for MGM executives.[121] The actual text survives in the book The Making of Kubrick's 2001 by Jerome Agel.[122]

The second ('post-premiere') set of cuts includes details about the daily life on Discovery, additional spacewalks, astronaut Bowman retrieving a spare part from an octagonal corridor, a number of cuts from the Poole murder sequence including the entire spacewalk preparation and shots of Hal turning off radio contact with Poole—explaining Hal's response that the radio is "still dead" when Bowman asks him if radio contact has been made—and notably a close-up shot of Bowman picking up a slipper during his walk in the alien room; the slipper can still be seen behind him in what would have been the next shot in the sequence.[123]

Kubrick's rationale for editing the film was to tighten the narrative; reviews suggested the film suffered too much by the radical departure from traditional cinema story telling conventions. Regarding the cuts, Kubrick stated, "I didn't believe that the trims made a critical difference. [...] The people who like it, like it no matter what its length, and the same holds true for the people who hate it".[121]

As was typical of most movies of that era released both as a "road-show" (in Cinerama format in the case of Space Odyssey) and subsequently put into general release (in 70 mm in the case of Odyssey), the entrance music, intermission music (and intermission altogether), and post-credits exit music were cut from most (though not all) prints of the latter version, although these have been restored to most DVD releases.[124][125]

According to Kubrick biographer Jan Harlan, the director was adamant the trims were never to be seen, and that he "even burned the negatives"—which he had kept in his garage—shortly before his death. This is confirmed by former Kubrick assistant Leon Vitali: "I'll tell you right now, okay, on Clockwork Orange, The Shining, Barry Lyndon, some little parts of 2001, we had thousands of cans of negative outtakes and print, which we had stored in an area at his house where we worked out of, which he personally supervised the loading of it to a truck and then I went down to a big industrial waste lot and burned it. That's what he wanted."[126]

In December, 2010, Douglas Trumbull announced that Warner Brothers had located 17 minutes of lost footage, "perfectly preserved", in a Kansas salt mine vault. A Warner Brothers press release asserts definitively that this material is from the post-premiere cuts, which Kubrick has stated totaled 19 minutes.[127][128]

No immediate plans have been announced for the footage, but Trumbull intends to use stills from them in a book he is publishing.[129]

Reuse of special effects shots

Although special effects supervisor Douglas Trumbull had been unable to provide convincing footage of Saturn for 2001 (thus causing the filmmakers to change the mission's destination to Jupiter), he had solved the technical problems involved in reproducing Saturn's rings by the time he directed Silent Running four years later in 1972, employing effects developed but not completed for 2001.[130]

In spite of Kubrick's tendency to destroy scenes he shot but did not use in the film, unused footage from the final Stargate sequence appears in the Beatles film Magical Mystery Tour during the sequence accompanied by their instrumental song "Flying".[131]

Soundtrack

Music

Music plays a crucial part in 2001, and not only because of the relatively sparse dialogue. From very early on in production, Kubrick decided that he wanted the film to be a primarily non-verbal experience,[132] one that did not rely on the traditional techniques of narrative cinema, and in which music would play a vital role in evoking particular moods. About half the music in the film appears either before the first line of dialogue or after the final line. Almost no music is heard during any scenes with dialogue.

The film is remarkable for its innovative use of classical music taken from existing commercial recordings. Most feature films then and now are typically accompanied by elaborate film scores or songs written especially for them by professional composers. In the early stages of production, Kubrick had actually commissioned a score for 2001 from noted Hollywood composer Alex North, who had written the score for Spartacus and also worked on Dr. Strangelove.[133] However, during post-production, Kubrick chose to abandon North's music in favor of the now-familiar classical music pieces he had earlier chosen as "guide pieces" for the soundtrack. North did not know of the abandonment of the score until after he saw the film's premiere screening.[134]

2001 is particularly remembered for using pieces of Johann Strauss II's best-known waltz, An der schönen blauen Donau (On the Beautiful Blue Danube), during the extended space-station docking and lunar landing sequences, and the use of the opening from the Richard Strauss tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra[135] Gayane's Adagio from Aram Khatchaturian's Gayane ballet suite is heard during the sections that introduce Bowman and Poole aboard the Discovery conveying a somewhat lonely and mournful quality.

In addition to the majestic yet fairly traditional compositions by the two Strausses and Aram Khatchaturian, Kubrick used four highly modernistic compositions by György Ligeti which employ micropolyphony, the use of sustained dissonant chords that shift slowly over time. This technique was pioneered in Atmosphères, the only Ligeti piece heard in its entirety in the film. Ligeti admired Kubrick's film, but in addition to being irritated by Kubrick's failure to obtain permission directly from him, he was offended that his music was used in a film soundtrack shared by composers Johann and Richard Strauss.[136] Other music used is Ligeti's Lux Aeterna and an electronically altered form of his Aventures, the last of which was so used without Ligeti's permission and is not listed in the film's credits.[137]

Hal's version of the popular song "Daisy Bell" (referred to by Hal as "Daisy" in the film) was inspired by a computer-synthesized arrangement by Max Mathews, which Arthur C. Clarke had heard in 1962 at the Bell Laboratories Murray Hill facility when he was, coincidentally, visiting friend and colleague John Pierce. At that time, a speech synthesis demonstration was being performed by physicist John Larry Kelly, Jr, by using an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer vocoder recreated the song "Daisy Bell" ("Bicycle Built For Two"), with Max Mathews providing the musical accompaniment. Arthur C. Clarke was so impressed that he later used it in the screenplay and novel."[138]

Many foreign language versions of the film do not use the song "Daisy." In the French soundtrack to 2001, Hal sings the French folk song "Au Clair de la Lune" while being disconnected.[139] In the German version, Hal sings the children's song "Hänschen klein" ("Johnny Little"),[140] and in the Italian version Hal sings "Giro giro tondo."[141]

A recording of British light music composer Sidney Torch's "Off Beats Mood" was chosen by Kubrick as the theme for the fictitious BBC news programme "The World Tonight" seen aboard the spaceship Discovery.[142]

On June 25, 2010 a version of the film specially remastered by Warner Bros without the music soundtrack opened the 350th anniversary celebrations of the Royal Society at Southbank Centre in co-operation with the British Film Institute, with the score played live by the Philharmonia Orchestra and Choir.[143]

Soundtrack album

The initial MGM soundtrack album release contained none of the material from the altered and uncredited rendition of "Aventures", used a different recording of "Also sprach Zarathustra" than that heard in the film, and a longer excerpt of "Lux aeterna" than that in the film.

In 1996, Turner Entertainment/Rhino Records released a new soundtrack on CD which included the material from "Aventures" and restored the version of "Zarathustra" used in the film, and used the shorter version of "Lux aeterna" from the film. As additional "bonus tracks" at the end, this CD includes the versions of "Zarathustra" and "Lux aeterna" on the old MGM soundtrack, an unaltered performance of "Aventures", and a nine-minute compilation of all of Hal's dialogue from the film.

North's unused music had its first public appearance Telarc's issue of the main theme on Hollywood's Greatest Hits, Vol. 2, a compilation album by Erich Kunzel and the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. All the music North originally wrote was recorded commercially by North's friend and colleague Jerry Goldsmith with the National Philharmonic Orchestra and was released on Varèse Sarabande CDs shortly after Telarc's first theme release but before North's death. Eventually, a mono mix-down of North's original recordings, which had survived in the interim, would be released as a limited edition CD by Intrada Records.[144]

Release

Theatrical run

The film's world premiere was on April 2, 1968, at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C. It opened two days later at the Warner Cinerama Theatre in Hollywood, and Loew's Capitol in New York. Kubrick then deleted 19 minutes of footage from the film before its general release in five other U.S. cities on April 10, 1968, and internationally in five cities the following day,[145][146] where it was shown in 70mm format, with a six-track stereo magnetic soundtrack, and projected in the 2.21:1 aspect ratio. The general release of the film in its 35mm anamorphic format took place in autumn 1968, with either a four-track magnetic stereo soundtrack or an optical monaural soundtrack.[147]

The original 70 mm release, like many Super Panavision 70 films of the era such as Grand Prix, was advertised as being in "Cinerama" in cinemas equipped with special projection optics and a deeply curved screen. In standard cinemas, the film was identified as a 70 mm production. The original release of 2001: A Space Odyssey in 70 mm Cinerama with six-track sound played continually for more than a year in several venues, and for 103 weeks in Los Angeles.[148]

The film was re-released in 1974, 1977, and again in 1980.[149] Once 2001, the film's timeset, arrived, a restoration of the 70mm version was screened at the Ebert's Overlooked Film Festival, and the production was also reissued to selected movie houses in North America, Europe and Asia.[150][151]

Home video

MGM/CBS Home Video released it on VHS and Beta home video for the first time in 1980.[152] MGM also published letterbox laserdisc editions (including an updated edition with Dolby Digital 5.1 sound), in 1991 and 1993. (Although Turner Entertainment had acquired the bulk of MGM's film library, the MGM company had a distribution deal with Turner.) There also was a special edition laserdisc from The Criterion Collection in the CAV format. In 1997, it was re-released in VHS, and as part of the "Stanley Kubrick Collection" in both VHS format (1999) and DVD (2000) with remastered sound and picture. In some video releases, three title cards were added to the three "blank screen" moments; "OVERTURE" at the beginning, "ENTR'ACTE" during the intermission, and "EXIT MUSIC" after the closing credits.[153]

It has been released on Region 1 DVD four times: once by MGM Home Entertainment in 1998 and thrice by Warner Home Video in 1999, 2001, and 2007. The MGM release had a booklet, the film, trailer, and an interview with Arthur C. Clarke, and the soundtrack was remastered in 5.1 surround sound. The 1999 Warner Bros. release omitted the booklet, yet had a re-release trailer. The 2001 release contained the re-release trailer, the film in the original 2.21:1 aspect ratio, digitally re-mastered from the original 70 mm print, and the soundtrack remixed in 5.1 surround sound. A limited edition DVD included a booklet, 70 mm frame, and a new soundtrack CD of the film's actual (unreleased) music tracks, and a sampling of Hal's dialogue.

Warner Home Video released a 2-DVD Special Edition on October 23, 2007 as part of their latest set of Kubrick reissues. The DVD was released on its own and as part of a revised Stanley Kubrick box set which contains new Special Edition versions of A Clockwork Orange, The Shining, Eyes Wide Shut, Full Metal Jacket, and the documentary A Life in Pictures. Additionally, the film was released in high definition on both HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc[154]

Reception

Critical reaction

Upon release, 2001 polarized critical opinion, receiving both ecstatic praise and vehement derision. Some critics viewed the original 161-minute cut shown at premieres in Washington D.C., New York, and Los Angeles,[1] while others saw the 19-minute-shorter general release version that was in theaters from April 10, 1968 onwards.[146]

Positive
In The New Yorker, Penelope Gilliatt said it was "some kind of great film, and an unforgettable endeavor...The film is hypnotically entertaining, and it is funny without once being gaggy, but it is also rather harrowing."[155] Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times opined that it was "the picture that science fiction fans of every age and in every corner of the world have prayed (sometimes forlornly) that the industry might some day give them. It is an ultimate statement of the science fiction film, an awesome realization of the spatial future...it is a milestone, a landmark for a spacemark, in the art of film."[156] Louise Sweeney of The Christian Science Monitor felt that 2001 was "a brilliant intergalactic satire on modern technology. It's also a dazzling 160-minute tour on the Kubrick filmship through the universe out there beyond our earth."[157] Philip French wrote that the film was "perhaps the first multi-million-dollar supercolossal movie since D.W. Griffith's Intolerance fifty years ago which can be regarded as the work of one man...Space Odyssey is important as the high-water mark of science-fiction movie making, or at least of the genre's futuristic branch."[158] The Boston Globe's review indicated that it was "the world's most extraordinary film. Nothing like it has ever been shown in Boston before or, for that matter, anywhere...The film is as exciting as the discovery of a new dimension in life."[159] Roger Ebert gave the film four stars in his original review, believing the film "succeeds magnificently on a cosmic scale."[77] He later put it on his Top 10 list for Sight & Sound.[160] Time provided at least seven different mini-reviews of the film in various issues in 1968, each one slightly more positive than the preceding one; in the final review dated December 27, 1968, the magazine called 2001 "an epic film about the history and future of mankind, brilliantly directed by Stanley Kubrick. The special effects are mindblowing."[161]

Negative
However, Pauline Kael said it was "a monumentally unimaginative movie,"[162] and Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic called it "a film that is so dull, it even dulls our interest in the technical ingenuity for the sake of which Kubrick has allowed it to become dull."[163] Renata Adler of The New York Times wrote that it was "somewhere between hypnotic and immensely boring."[164] Variety's 'Robe' believed the film was a "Big, beautiful, but plodding sci-fi epic...A major achievement in cinematography and special effects, 2001 lacks dramatic appeal to a large degree and only conveys suspense after the halfway mark."[165] Andrew Sarris called it "one of the grimmest films I have ever seen in my life...2001 is a disaster because it is much too abstract to make its abstract points."[166] (Sarris reversed his opinion upon a second viewing of the film, and declared "2001 is indeed a major work by a major artist."[167]) John Simon felt it was "a regrettable failure, although not a total one. This film is fascinating when it concentrates on apes or machines...and dreadful when it deals with the in-betweens: humans...2001, for all its lively visual and mechanical spectacle, is a kind of space-Spartacus and, more pretentious still, a shaggy God story."[168] Eminent historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. deemed the film "morally pretentious, intellectually obscure and inordinately long...a film out of control".[53] It has been noted that its slow pacing often alienates modern audiences more than it did upon its initial release.[169]

Science fiction writers
Science fiction writers had a range of reactions to the film. Ray Bradbury was hostile, stating that the audience does not care when Poole dies. He praised the film's beautiful photography but disliked the banality of most of the dialogue.[170] Both he and Lester del Rey were put off by the film's feeling of sterility and blandness in all the human encounters amidst all the technological wonders, while both praised the pictorial element of the movie. Del Rey was especially harsh, describing the film as dull, confusing, and boring, predicting "It will probably be a box-office disaster, too, and thus set major science-fiction movie making back another ten years." However, the film was praised by science-fiction novelist Samuel R. Delany who was impressed by how the film undercuts the audience's normal sense of space and orientation in several ways. Like Bradbury, Delany picked up on the banality of the dialogue (in Delany's phrasing the characters are saying nothing meaningful), but Delany regards this as a dramatic strength, a prelude to the rebirth at the conclusion of the film.[171] Without analyzing the film in detail, Isaac Asimov spoke well of Space Odyssey in his autobiography, and other essays. The film won the Hugo Award for best dramatic presentation, an award heavily voted on by published science-fiction writers.[172]

Box-office

The film earned $8.5 million in theatrical gross rental from roadshow engagements throughout 1968,[149] contributing to North American rentals of $15 million during its original release.[173] Reissues have brought its cumulative exhibition gross to $56.9 million in North America,[174] and over $190 million worldwide.[173]

Influence

Influence on film

Stanley Kubrick made the ultimate science fiction movie, and it is going to be very hard for someone to come along and make a better movie, as far as I'm concerned. On a technical level, it can be compared, but personally I think that '2001' is far superior.

—George Lucas, 1977[148]

The influence of 2001 on subsequent filmmakers is considerable. Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and others, including many special effects technicians, discuss the impact the film has had on them in a featurette entitled Standing on the Shoulders of Kubrick: The Legacy of 2001 included in the 2007 DVD release of the film. Spielberg calls it his film generation's "big bang", while Lucas says it was "hugely inspirational", labeling Kubrick as "the filmmaker's filmmaker". Sydney Pollack refers to it as "groundbreaking", and William Friedkin states 2001 is "the grandfather of all such films". At the 2007 Venice film festival, director Ridley Scott stated he believed 2001 was the unbeatable film that in a sense killed the science fiction genre.[175] Similarly, film critic Michel Ciment in his essay "Odyssey of Stanley Kubrick" stated "Kubrick has conceived a film which in one stroke has made the whole science fiction cinema obsolete."[176] Others, however, credit 2001 with opening up a market for films such as Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Alien, Blade Runner, and Contact; proving that big-budget "serious" science-fiction films can be commercially successful, and establishing the "sci-fi blockbuster" as a Hollywood staple.[177] Science magazine Discover's blogger Stephen Cass, discussing the considerable impact of the film on subsequent science-fiction, writes that "the balletic spacecraft scenes set to sweeping classical music, the tarantula-soft tones of HAL 9000, and the ultimate alien artifact, the Monolith, have all become enduring cultural icons in their own right."[178] Video game director Hideo Kojima has also cited 2001: A Space Odyssey as one of the chief influences for his Metal Gear series, with Solid Snake and Otacon inspired by Dave and Hal.[179]

Influence on culture

One commentator has suggested that the image of the Star Child and Earth has contributed to the rise of the "whole earth" icon as a symbol of the unity of humanity. Writing in The Asia Pacific Journal Robert Jacobs traces the history of this icon from early cartoons and drawings of the earth to photos of the earth from early space missions, to its historic appearance on the cover of The Whole Earth Catalog. Noting that images of the entire earth recur several times in A Space Odyssey, Jacobs writes
the most dramatic use of the icon was in the film's conclusion. In this scene...Bowman is reborn as the Star Child, ...depicted as a fetus floating in space in an amniotic sack [sic]. The Star Child turns to consider the Whole Earth floating in front of it, both glowing a bright blue-white. The two appear as newborn versions of Man and Earth, face-to-face, ready to be born into a future of unthinkable possibilities.[180]

Influence on technology and law

In August 2011, in response to Apple Inc.'s patent infringement lawsuit against Samsung, the latter argued that Apple's iPad was effectively modeled on the visual tablets that appear aboard spaceship Discovery in the Space Odyssey film, which legally constitute "prior art". Legally, prior art is information that has been disclosed to the public in any form about an invention before a given date that might be relevant to the patent's claim of originality.[181] Samsung appealed specifically to a clip appearing on YouTube arguing

Attached hereto as Exhibit D is a true and correct copy of a still image taken from Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film "2001: A Space Odyssey." In a clip from that film lasting about one minute, two astronauts are eating and at the same time using personal tablet computers. As with the design claimed by the D'889 Patent, the tablet disclosed in the clip has an overall rectangular shape with a dominant display screen, narrow borders, a predominately flat front surface, a flat back surface (which is evident because the tablets are lying flat on the table's surface), and a thin form factor.[182]

"Siri", Apple's natural language voice control system for the iPhone, features three references to the film; a modem that looks like Hal's faceplate, if asked to sing it might reply "Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer do", and it responds "I'm sorry I can't do that" when asked to "open the pod bay doors".[183][184]

Inspired by Clarke's visual tablet device, in 1994 a European Commission-funded R&D project code named "NewsPAD" developed and pilot tested a portable 'multimedia viewer' aiming for the realisation of an electronic multimedia 'newspaper' pointing the way to a future fully interactive and highly personalised information source. Involved partners were Acorn RISC Technologies UK, Archimedes GR, Carat FR, Ediciones Primera Plana ES, Instut Catala de Tecnologia ES, and TechMAPP UK.[185]

Awards and honors

Academy Awards

2001 earned Stanley Kubrick an Academy Award for Best Visual Effects and various Oscar nominations. Anthony Masters was nominated for Best Art Direction; there were also nominations for Best Director (Kubrick), and Original Screenplay (Kubrick, Clarke). An honorary award was made to John Chambers in that year for his makeup work on Planet of the Apes, and Clarke reports that he "wondered, as loudly as possible, whether the judges had passed over 2001 because they thought we had used real ape-men..."[186]

Other awards

Won
Nominated

Top film lists

2001 was No. 15 on AFI's 2007 100 Years... 100 Movies, was named No. 40 on its 100 Years, 100 Thrills, was included on its 100 Years, 100 Quotes ("Open the pod bay doors, Hal."), and Hal 9000 is the No. 13 villain in the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains.[194] 2001 is the only science fiction film to make the Sight & Sound poll for ten best movies, and tops the Online Film Critics Society list of "greatest science fiction films of all time."[195] In 1991, this film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.[196] Other lists that include the film are 50 Films to See Before You Die (#6), The Village Voice 100 Best Films of the 20th century (#11), the Sight & Sound Top Ten poll (#6),[197] and Roger Ebert's Top Ten (1968) (#2). In 1995, the Vatican named it as one of the 45 best films ever made (and included it in a sub-list of the "Top Ten Art Movies" of all time.)[198]

In 2011, the film was the third most screened film in secondary schools in the United Kingdom.[199]

Interpretation

Since its premiere, 2001: A Space Odyssey has been analyzed and interpreted by professional movie critics, amateur writers and science fiction fans, virtually all of whom have noted its deliberate ambiguity. Questions about 2001 range from uncertainty about its deeper philosophical implications about humanity's origins and final destiny in the universe,[200] to interpreting elements of the film's more enigmatic scenes such as the meaning of the monolith, or the final fate of astronaut David Bowman. There are also simpler and more mundane questions about what drives the plot, in particular the causes of Hal's breakdown[201] (explained in earlier drafts but kept mysterious in the film).

Stanley Kubrick encouraged people to explore their own interpretations of the film, and refused to offer an explanation of "what really happened" in the movie, preferring instead to let audiences embrace their own ideas and theories. In a 1968 interview with Playboy magazine, Kubrick stated:

You're free to speculate as you wish about the philosophical and allegorical meaning of the film—and such speculation is one indication that it has succeeded in gripping the audience at a deep level—but I don't want to spell out a verbal road map for 2001 that every viewer will feel obligated to pursue or else fear he's missed the point.[36]

In a subsequent discussion of the film with Joseph Gelmis, Kubrick said his main aim was to avoid "intellectual verbalization" and reach "the viewer's subconscious". However, he said he did not deliberately strive for ambiguity- it was simply an inevitable outcome of making the film nonverbal, though he acknowledged this ambiguity was an invaluable asset to the film. He was willing then to give a fairly straightforward explanation of the plot on what he called the "simplest level", but unwilling to discuss the metaphysical interpretation of the film which he felt should be left up to the individual viewer.[202]

For some readers, Arthur C. Clarke's more straightforward novelization of the script is key to interpreting the film. Clarke's novel explicitly identifies the monolith as a tool created by an alien race that has been through many stages of evolution, moving from organic form to biomechanical, and finally achieving a state of pure energy. These aliens travel the cosmos assisting lesser species to take evolutionary steps. Conversely, film critic Penelope Houston noted in 1971 that because the novel differs in many key respects from the film, it perhaps should not be regarded as the skeleton key to unlock it.[203]

Multiple allegorical interpretations of 2001 have been proposed, including seeing it as a commentary on Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical tract Thus Spoke Zarathustra, or as an allegory of human conception, birth and death.[204] This latter can be seen through the final moments of the film, which are defined by the image of the "star child", an in utero fetus that draws on the work of Lennart Nilsson.[205] The star child signifies a "great new beginning",[205] and is depicted naked and ungirded, but with its eyes wide open.[206] Leonard F. Wheat sees Space Odyssey as a multi-layered allegory, commenting simultaneously on Nietzsche, Homer, and the relationship of man to machine.

The reasons for Hal's malfunction and subsequent malignant behavior have also elicited much discussion. He has been compared to Frankenstein's monster. In Clarke's novel, Hal malfunctions because of being ordered to lie to the crew of Discovery. Film critic Roger Ebert has noted that Hal as the supposedly perfect computer, actually behaves in the most human fashion of all of the characters.[207]

Rolling Stone reviewer Bob McClay sees the film as like a four-movement symphony, its story told with "deliberate realism".[208] Carolyn Geduld believes that what "structurally unites all four episodes of the film" is the monolith, the film's largest and most unresolvable enigma.[209] Vincent LoBrutto's biography of Kubrick notes that for many, Clarke's novel is the key to understanding the monolith.[210] Similarly, Geduld observes that "the monolith ...has a very simple explanation in Clarke's novel", though she later asserts that even the novel doesn't fully explain the ending.

McClay's Rolling Stone review notes a parallelism between the monolith's first appearance in which tool usage is imparted to the apes (thus 'beginning' mankind) and the completion of "another evolution" in the fourth and final encounter[211] with the monolith. In a similar vein, Tim Dirks ends his synopsis saying "The cyclical evolution from ape to man to spaceman to angel-starchild-superman is complete".[212]

The first and second encounters of humanity with the monolith have visual elements in common; both apes, and later astronauts, touch the monolith gingerly with their hands, and both sequences conclude with near-identical images of the sun appearing directly over the monolith (the first with a crescent Moon adjacent to it in the sky, the second with a near-identical crescent Earth in the same position), both echoing the Sun-Earth-Moon alignment seen at the very beginning of the film.[213] The second encounter also suggests the triggering of the monolith's radio signal to Jupiter by the presence of humans,[214] echoing the premise of Clarke's source story The Sentinel.

The monolith is the subject of the film's final line of dialogue (spoken at the end of the "Jupiter Mission" segment): "Its origin and purpose still a total mystery". Reviewers McClay and Roger Ebert have noted that the monolith is the main element of mystery in the film, Ebert writing of "The shock of the monolith's straight edges and square corners among the weathered rocks", and describing the apes warily circling it as prefiguring man reaching "for the stars".[215] Patrick Webster suggests the final line relates to how the film should be approached as a whole, noting "The line appends not merely to the discovery of the monolith on the Moon, but to our understanding of the film in the light of the ultimate questions it raises about the mystery of the universe."[216]

The film conveys what some viewers have described as a sense of the sublime and numinous. Roger Ebert notes:
North's [rejected] score, which is available on a recording, is a good job of film composition, but would have been wrong for 2001 because, like all scores, it attempts to underline the action—to give us emotional cues. The classical music chosen by Kubrick exists outside the action. It uplifts. It wants to be sublime; it brings a seriousness and transcendence to the visuals.[217]
In a book on architecture, Gregory Caicco writes that Space Odyssey illustrates how our quest for space is motivated by two contradictory desires, a "desire for the sublime" characterized by a need to encounter something totally other than ourselves — "something numinous" — and the conflicting desire for a beauty that makes us feel no longer "lost in space", but at home.[218] Similarly, an article in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, titled "Sense of Wonder", describes how 2001 creates a "numinous sense of wonder" by portraying a universe that inspires a sense of awe, which at the same time we feel we can understand.[219] Christopher Palmer has noted that there exists in the film a coexistence of "the sublime and the banal", as the film implies that to get into space, mankind had to suspend the "sense of wonder" that motivated him to explore space to begin with.[220]

Sequels and adaptations

Kubrick did not envisage a sequel to 2001. Fearing the later exploitation and recycling of his material in other productions (as was done with the props from MGM's Forbidden Planet), he ordered all sets, props, miniatures, production blueprints, and prints of unused scenes destroyed. Most of these materials were lost, with some exceptions: a 2001 spacesuit backpack appeared in the "Close Up" episode of the Gerry Anderson series UFO,[37][48][221][222][223] and one of Hal's eyepieces is in the possession of the author of Hal's Legacy, David G. Stork. In 2012 Lockheed engineer Adam Johnson, working with Frederick I. Ordway III, science adviser to Stanley Kubrick, wrote the book "2001: The Lost Science" which for the first time featured many of the blueprints of the spacecraft and movie sets that had previously been thought destroyed.

Clarke went on to write three sequel novels: 2010: Odyssey Two (1982), 2061: Odyssey Three (1987), and 3001: The Final Odyssey (1997). The only filmed sequel, 2010, was based on Clarke's 1982 novel and was released in 1984. Kubrick was not involved in the production of this film, which was directed by Peter Hyams in a straightforward style with more dialogue. Clarke saw it as a fitting adaptation of his novel,[224] and had a brief cameo appearance in the film. As Kubrick had ordered all models and blueprints from 2001 destroyed, Hyams was forced to recreate these models from scratch for 2010. Hyams also claimed that he would not make the film had he not received both Kubrick's and Clarke's blessings:

I had a long conversation with Stanley and told him what was going on. If it met with his approval, I would do the film; and if it didn't, I wouldn't. I certainly would not have thought of doing the film if I had not gotten the blessing of Kubrick. He's one of my idols; simply one of the greatest talents that's ever walked the Earth. He more or less said, "Sure. Go do it. I don't care." And another time he said, "Don't be afraid. Just go do your own movie."[225]

The other two novels have not been adapted for the screen, although actor Tom Hanks has expressed interest in possible adaptations of 2061 and 3001.[226]

In 2012, two screenplay adaptations of both 2061 and 3001 were both posted on the 2001:Exhibit website, in the hopes of generating interest in both MGM and WB to adapt the last two novels into films.[227]

Beginning in 1976, Marvel Comics published both a comic adaptation of the film written and drawn by Jack Kirby, and a Kirby-created 10-issue monthly series expanding on the ideas of the film and novel.

Mock hoaxes and conspiracy theory

In 2002, the French film maker William Karel (after initially planning a straight documentary on Stanley Kubrick) directed a hoax mockumentary about Kubrick and the NASA moonlanding titled Dark Side of the Moon. He had the cooperation of Kubrick's surviving family and some NASA personnel (all of whom appear using scripted lines) and using recycled footage of members of the Nixon administration taken out of context. The film purported to demonstrate that the NASA moon landings had been faked and that the moonlanding footage had been directed by Stanley Kubrick during the production of 2001: A Space Odyssey. In discussing the film, director Karel said
Navigating carefully between lies and truth, the film mixes fact with pure invention. We will use every possible ingredient: 'hijacked' archive footage, false documents, real interviews which have been taken out of context or transformed through voice-over or dubbing, staged interviews by actors who reply from a script...
This is not an 'ordinary' documentary. Its intent is to inform and entertain the viewer, but also to shake him up, make him aware of the fact that television can get it wrong (intentionally or not). We want to achieve this aim by using a universally known event (the landing on the Moon) that is surrounded by question marks (which is a fact) and spin some tale around it, that sounds plausible but isn't a fact (although there are elements in it that are real!).[228]
When the film was shown to a group of undergraduate sociology students taking a course on conspiracy theories, many of them mistakenly believed that this was an earnest and serious film.[229] Furthermore, moon-landing hoax advocate Wayne Green cited the film as evidence for his views apparently believing the excerpts of interviews with Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, etc. (taken out of context in the film) were really talking about a moonlanding hoax.[230] Nonetheless, the second half of the film contains several giveaways that the entire film is a hoax in jest, including a film producer named "Jack Torrance" (the name of Jack Nicholson's character in Kubrick's The Shining) an aging NASA astronaut named "David Bowman" (the astronaut in 2001) and increasing use of footage that does not match or support the narration. Australian broadcaster SBS television aired the film on April 1 as an April fools' joke, and again on November 17, 2008 as part of Kubrick week.

A 1995 article promoting a similar mock hoax about Kubrick faking the Apollo landing also deceived many readers (in the sense of their believing the author was a bona fide conspiracy theorist). The article was posted originally on the Usenet humor news group 'alt.humor.best-of-usenet', but later reproduced in other venues not devoted to humor. The original article (with correct attribution) can be read at "www.clavius.org", a website devoted to debunking moon landing hoax theories.[231] Websites which have reproduced it as an earnest advocacy effort include the website of the flat earth society.[232] Conspiracy theorist Clyde Lewis lifted several passages from the mock article verbatim (without attribution) in support of his moonlanding hoax theories.[233] Lewis and the flat earth society seem to ignore closing passages of the article stating the final Apollo scenes were actually filmed in the Sea of Tranquillity (an area on the moon's surface) to which Kubrick did not go personally due to his chronic fear of flying, passages meant to give away that the article is a tongue-in-cheek mock hoax.

An entirely sincere documentary film making the same claim that Morel's "mockumentary" did in jest was released in 2011 by occultist and conspiracy theorist Jay Weidner entitled Kubrick's Odyssey: Secrets Hidden in the Films of Stanley Kubrick; Part One: Kubrick and Apollo. The film was self-released on DVD by Weidner's company "Sacred Mysteries". Weidner claims that Kubrick used the same front-projection sequences used in the Dawn of Man sequence and the lunar landing sequence in Space Odyssey to simulate the Apollo landing and the NASA footage of the astronauts on the surface of the moon. Weidner also claims Kubrick's film The Shining contains coded messages about Kubrick's involvement in faking the moon-landing. The science magazine Discovery reviewed an earlier article by Weidner upon which the film was based as "bunk" but "oddly compelling" and "strangely fascinating".[234] This theory is again discussed in the 2012 documentary Room 237.

In actual front screen projection it is impossible to do wide camera pans and zooms of the kind that are frequently seen in Apollo moon footage, and are notably absent from the relatively static camera movement in the Dawn of Man sequence in Space Odyssey. The Dawn of Man sequence contains anomalies such as the glowing eyes of the cheetah which give away the existence of front-screen projection. Nothing comparable is seen in the visors of the astronauts in Apollo moon footage.

Parodies and homages

2001 has been the frequent subject of both parody and homage, sometimes extensively and other times briefly, employing both its distinctive music and iconic imagery.

In print and advertising
  • Thought to be the first time Kubrick gave permission for his work to be re-used, Apple Inc.'s 1999 website advertisement "It was a bug, Dave" was made using footage from the film. Launched during the era of concerns over Y2K bugs, the ad implied that Hal's weird behavior was caused by a Y2K bug, before driving home the point that "only Macintosh was designed to function perfectly".[235]
  • Mad magazine #125 (March 1969) featured a spoof called 201 Minutes of a Space Idiocy written by Dick DeBartolo and illustrated by Mort Drucker.[236] In the final panels it is revealed that the monolith is a movie script titled "How to Make an Incomprehensible Science Fiction Movie" by Stanley Kubrick." It was reprinted in various special issues, in the MAD About the Sixties book, and partially in the book "The Making of Kubrick's 2001".[237]
In film and television
  • Mel Brooks' satirical film History of the World, Part I opens with a parody of Kubrick's "Dawn of Man" sequence, narrated by Orson Welles. DVDVerdict describes this parody as "spot on".[238] (Ironically, Brooks had earlier defeated 2001: A Space Odyssey in competition for the Best Screenplay Oscar.) A similar spoof of the "Dawn of Man" sequence also opened Ken Shapiro's 1974 comedy The Groove Tube in which the monolith was replaced by a television set. (The film is mostly a parody of television. Film and Filming[239] held that after this wonderful opening, the film slid downhill.)
  • Woody Allen cast actor Douglas Rain (Hal in Kubrick's film) in an uncredited part as the voice of the controlling computer in the closing sequences of his science-fiction comedy Sleeper.[240]
  • Kubrick was both a great fan of The Simpsons[241] and in friendly contact with the show's producers, according to his stepdaughter Katharina. Analysts of the show argue that The Simpsons contains more references to many films of Stanley Kubrick than any other pop culture phenomenon.[242][243] Gary Westfahl has noted that while references to "fantastic fiction" in The Simpsons are copious, "there are two masters of the genre whose impact on The Simpsons supersedes that of all others: Stanley Kubrick and Edgar Allan Poe."[244] John Alberti has referred to "the show's almost obsessive references to the films of Stanley Kubrick."[245] Simpson's creator Matt Groening is also the creator of Futurama which also has copious references to various Kubrick films.
    Of the many references to Kubrick in Groening's work, perhaps the most notable Space Odyssey reference in The Simpsons is in the episode "Deep Space Homer" in which Bart throws a felt-tip marker into the air; in slow motion it rotates, before a match cut replaces it with a cylindrical satellite. In 2004 Empire magazine listed this as the third best film parody of the entire run of the show.[246] In the Futurama episode "Love and Rocket" a sentient spaceship revolts in a manner similar to Hal. Total Film listed this as number 17 in its list of 20 Funniest Futurama parodies, while noting that Futurama has referenced Space Odyssey on several other occasions.[247]
  • Peter Sellers starred in Hal Ashby's comedy-drama Being There about a simple-minded middle-aged gardener who has lived his entire life in the townhouse of his wealthy employer. In the scene where he first leaves the house and ventures into the wide world for the first time, the soundtrack plays a jazzy version of Strauss' Thus Spake Zarathustra arranged by Eumir Deodato. Film critic James A. Davidson writing for the film journal Images suggests "When Chance emerges from his home into the world, Ashby suggests his child-like nature by using Richard Strauss' Thus Spake Zarathustra as ironic background music, linking his hero with Kubrick's star baby in his masterpiece 2001: A Space Odyssey."[248]
  • Tim Burton's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory has a scene (using actual footage from A Space Odyssey) in which the monolith morphs into a chocolate bar.[249] Catholic News noted that the film "had subtle and obvious riffs on everything from the saccharine Disney "Small World" exhibit to Munchkinland to, most brilliantly, a hilarious takeoff on Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey."[250]
  • Andrew Stanton, the director of WALL-E, revealed in an interview with WIRED magazine that his film was in many ways an homage to Space Odyssey, Alien, Blade Runner, Close Encounters and several other science-fiction films.[251] The reviewer for USA Today noted the resemblance of the spaceship's computer, Auto, to Hal.[252] The same year saw the release of the much less successful film Eagle Eye, about which The Charlotte Observer noted that, like 2001, it featured a "red-eyed, calm-voiced supercomputer that took human life to protect what it felt were higher objectives"[253]
  • Commenting on the broader use of Ligeti's music beyond that by Kubrick, London Magazine in 2006 noted Monty Python's use of Ligeti in a 60-second spoof of Space Odyssey in the Flying Circus episode commonly labeled "A Book at Bedtime".[254]
  • The poorly reviewed Canadian spoof 2001: A Space Travesty has been occasionally alluded to as a full parody of Kubrick's film,[255] both because of its title and star Leslie Nielsen's many previous films which were full parodies of other films.[256] However, Space Travesty only makes occasional references to Kubrick's material, its "celebrities are really aliens" jokes resembling those in Men in Black.[257] Canadian reviewer Jim Slotek noted "It's not really a spoof of 2001, or anything in particular. There's a brief homage at the start, and one scene in a shuttle en route to the Moon that uses The Blue Danube...The rest is a patched together plot."[258] Among many complaints about the film, reviewer Berge Garabedian derided the lack of much substantive connection to the Kubrick film (the latter of which he said was "funnier").[259]
  • Among spoof references to several science-fiction films and shows,[260] Airplane II features a computer called ROK 9000 in control of a Moon shuttle which malfunctions and kills crew members, which several reviewers found reminiscent of Hal.[261][262][263]
  • John Landis incorporates references to a fictional film entitled See You Next Wednesday into most of his films, the title of which was inspired by the last line spoken by Frank Poole's father during Poole's videophone conversation with his parents in Space Odyssey.
In video games and software
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey has also been referenced in multiple video games, usually either with reference to either the monolith or Hal. In SimEarth and Spore, monoliths are used to encourage the evolution of species.[264][265]
  • In Metal Gear Solid, the character Hal Emmerich was named in-world by his father after HAL 9000.[266][267]

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Agel p. 169
  2. Hirsch, Foster (1972). The Hollywood epic. Barnes. p. 13. ISBN 0-498-01747-8, 9780498017476. 
  3. Homer in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. 1972. p. iii. ISBN 0-19-161546-3, 9780191615467. 
  4. Dickinson, Kay (2008). Off key: when film and music won't work together. Oxford University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-19-532663-5. 
  5. 2001: A Space Odyssey (film by Kubrick [1968]) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  6. Adler, Renata. "2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)". The New York Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/169/2001-A-Space-Odyssey/overview. Retrieved September 19, 2011. . See also 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). AllRovi. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on September 19, 2011.See also 2001: A Space Odyssey – 40th Anniversary. AFI Silver. American Film Institute (2008). Retrieved on September 19, 2011.
  7. (French) 1968 : La révolution Kubrick. Cinezik web site (French film magazine on music in film). Archived from the original on October 23, 2009. Retrieved on September 29, 2009.
  8. Donald MacGregor. "2001; or, How One Film-Reviews With a Hammer". Visual-Memory. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
  9. 9.0 9.1 What did Kubrick have to say about what 2001 "means"?. Krusch.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2010. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  10. Sight and Sound: Top Ten Poll 2002. British Film Institute web site. Archived from the original on December 16, 2006. Retrieved on December 15, 2006.
  11. Vertigo is named 'greatest film of all time'. BBC News (August 2, 2012). Retrieved on August 24, 2012.
  12. The Moving Arts Film Journal | TMA's 100 Greatest Films of All Time | web site. Archived from the original on January 6, 2011. Retrieved on February 3, 2011.
  13. National Film Registry. National Film Registry (National Film Preservation Board, Library of Congress). Retrieved on November 26, 2011.
  14. Dictionary of terms used in film editing. allmovietalk.com. Retrieved on March 30, 2010.
  15. Giulio Angioni, Fare, dire, sentire: l'identico e il diverso nelle culture (2011), p. 37 and Un film del cuore, in Il dito alzato (2012), pp. 121-136
  16. Commentators on the film generally assume this is a gap of millions, not thousands, of years. See Webster, Patrick (2010). Love and Death in Kubrick. 0786459166, 9780786459162: McFarland. p. 47.  and Nelson, Thomas Allen (2000). Kubrick, Inside a Film Artist's Maze. Indiana University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0253213908, 9780253213907. 
    The novel gives the age of the monolith on the Moon as three million years (Chapter 11, Anomaly) while the film dialogue and an early draft of the screenplay gives it as four million
  17. Kubrick, in a 1970 interview with Joseph Gelmis, refers to this as a "Star-Gate"(Gelmis (1970:pg 304)
  18. Kubrick, in a 1970 interview with Joseph Gelmis, refers to this as a "Star-Child"(Gelmis (1970:pg 304)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Richter 2002
  20. Agel, Jerome (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001. New York: Signet. p. 11. ISBN 0-451-07139-5. 
  21. {{cite book | last = Clarke | first = Arthur C. | authorlink = Arthur C. Clarke | title = [[The Lost Worlds of 2001] | publisher = Sidgwick and Jackson | year = 1972 | location = London | isbn = 0-283-97903-8 | page=17}}
  22. LoBrutto, Vincent (1997, 1998). Stanley Kubrick. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 156–257. ISBN 0-571-19393-5. 
  23. Clarke p.29
  24. Clarke(1972)p. 29
  25. Clarke(1972)p. 32–35
  26. Agel(1970)p. 61
  27. Collected stories of Arthur C. Clarke Macmillan (2001) p. 460
  28. Hughes(2000)p. 135
  29. Clarke(1972)p. 32
  30. Agel(1970)p. 25
  31. Agel (1970): pp. 24–25
  32. Gelmis p.308
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Clarke (1972): pp.31–38
  34. Gelmis (1970): p.302
  35. Sagan, Carl (2000). "25". Carl Sagan's cosmic connection: an extraterrestrial perspective (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 183. ISBN 0-521-78303-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=lL57o9YB0mAC&pg=PA183. Retrieved January 27, 2012. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 "Stanley Kubrick: Playboy Interview". Playboy Magazine (September). 1968. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100925094212/http://www.playboy.com/articles/stanley-kubrick-interview/. Retrieved September 2, 2010. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Agel (1970)
  38. Jason Sperb's study of Kubrick The Kubrick Facade analyzes Kubrick's use of narration in detail. John Baxter's biography of Kubrick also notes how he frequently favored voice-over narration. Only 3 of Kubrick's 13 films lack narration- Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 The Kubrick Site: Fred Ordway on "2001". Visual-memory.co.uk. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  40. Clarke 1972'
  41. 41.0 41.1 Clarke, Arthur (1968). 2001: A Space Odyssey. UK: New American Library. ISBN 0-453-00269-2. 
  42. See Arthur C. Clarke's forward to 2010: Odyssey Two
  43. Agel p. 328–329
  44. Stanley Kubrick: A Biography by Vincent LoBrutto p. 310
  45. J. Gelmis. An Interview with Stanley Kubrick (1969). Retrieved on August 31, 2010.
  46. See Alexander Walker's book Stanley Kubrick, Director p. 181–182. This is the 2000 edition. The 1971 edition is titled "Stanley Kubrick Directs"
  47. Walker(2000)pp.192
  48. 48.0 48.1 Bizony, Piers (2001). 2001 Filming the Future. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 1-85410-706-2. 
  49. Walker (2000)pp.181–182
  50. 50.0 50.1 Michael Lennick (January 7, 2001). 2001 and Beyond (television). Canada: Discovery Channel Canada. [dead link]
  51. William Kloman (April 14, 1968). In 2001, Will Love Be a Seven-letter Word?. The New York Times. Retrieved on August 31, 2010. The interview is available from many other online sources.
  52. Griffith p. 252
  53. 53.0 53.1 Joyce, Paul (director) Doran, Jamie (producer) Bizony, Piers (assoc. producer) (2001). 2001: The Making Of A Myth (Television production). UK: Channel Four Television Corp.. Event occurs at 15:56. 
  54. This documentary is featured on the 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Special Edition DVD released in 2007. Clarke also referred to the "bone-to-bomb cut" in the earlier "Channel 4" documentary (1996) on Kubrick's larger body of work "The Invisible Man".
  55. Steven S. Pietrobon. Sworld.com.au. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  56. 56.0 56.1 2001 Studio Model Reference Page. Starship Modeler (June 10, 2008). Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  57. Ciment, Michel (1980, 1999). Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Calmann-Levy. p. 128. ISBN 0-571-19986-0. 
  58. See numerous reviews on "The Kubrick Site" [1] and elsewhere
  59. See Alex Walker's book "Stanley Kubrick, Director pg. 247
  60. The making of 2001, a space odyssey by Stephanie Schwam p. 237
  61. Pietrobon himself puts the word "cannons" in quotation marks, perhaps to indicate the ambiguity of the structure.
  62. Pietrobon notes on the Starship Modeler website [2] that the markings on the first and second satellites seen denote them as American and German respectively. The Iron Cross can be seen in close-up at [3]. Pietrobon states "It's unclear as to where that is a functional detail, such as an RCS thruster, or whether this model was supposed to represent something from the modern German arsenal." See 20:07 in 2007 DVD issue of film.
  63. The Kubrick Site: The '2001' Screenplay (1965). Visual-memory.co.uk. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  64. . http://www.underview.com/bhpatfilming.html. Retrieved January 27, 2012. 
  65. p. 88 within the longish photo insert which has no page numbering. Note on pg. 72 states "Captions on the following pages were prepared with the assistance of Messrs. Kubrick, Clarke, Trumball, and Pederson."
  66. 66.0 66.1 Jan Harlan, Stanley Kubrick (October 2007) (DVD). 2001:A Space Odyssey (DVD). Warner Bros.. 
  67. [4] [5][6][7]
  68. Military Space Power: A Guide to the Issues (Contemporary Military, Strategic, and Security Issues) by James Fergusson & Wilson Wong. p. 108
  69. Introduction to space: the science of spaceflight by Thomas Damon
  70. Bizony(2001):Pg. 108
  71. 2OO1: exhibit.org – Exhibitions. 2001exhibit.org. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  72. Chuck Rider (February 16, 2010). Dixième Planète Special Issue No. 2. ARA Press. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  73. [8] calls them bombs, model manufacturer AJAMODELS manufactures a model of the German "satellite"[9]. Website [10] describes their model in the text as an "orbital satellite" appearing in quotes but the image's internal jpeg title calls it a bomb.
  74. The Kubrick Site: Slavoj Zizek on Eyes Wide Shut
  75. "See Ebert's review at". Rogerebert.suntimes.com. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19970327/REVIEWS08/401010362/1023. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  76. See Walker, Alexander. Stanley Kubrick Directs. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971 p. 251
  77. 77.0 77.1 "Roger Ebert, Reviews: 2001: A Space Odyssey, 1968. Retrieved from". Rogerebert.suntimes.com. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19680412/REVIEWS/804120301/1023. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  78. Road to the Stars. Candle Light Stories.com. Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  79. Road to the Stars – 1957 Soviet Space Vision with Stunning Special Effects. Candlelight Stories (January 19, 2011). Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  80. "Klushantsev: Russia's Wizard of Fantastika". American cinematographer (ASC Holding Corp) 75. 1994. 
  81. Conte, Arthur (1992). Yatrides, Maitre du temps. Espace et Lumières. p. 170. ISBN 2-9507049-0-5. 
  82. 82.0 82.1 Publications about Yatrides and 2001 A space Odyssey | http://www.yatrides-21st-century.com/georges-yatrides-2001.php
  83. Bourmeyster, Sacha (1994). Georges Yatrides et son siècle, l'anti picasso. Espace et Lumières. p. 230. ISBN 2-9507049-1-3. 
  84. Bourmeyster, Sacha. Interstellar Icons, Yatrides 1960 – Kubrick 1968. 
  85. Raphaël Gabrion et le mystère des géopglyphes de Nazca|http://www.cyberarchi.com/actus&dossiers/hotels/index.php?dossier=67&article=4030
  86. Schwam(2000):Pg. 58
  87. 87.0 87.1 Gedult, Carolyn. The Production: A Calendar. Reproduced in: Castle, Alison (Editor). The Stanley Kubrick Archives, Taschen, 2005. ISBN 3-8228-2284-1
  88. Schwam(2000):Pg. 5
  89. Lightman, Herb A. Filming 2001: A Space Odyssey. American Cinematographer, June 1968. Excerpted in: Castle, Alison (Editor). The Stanley Kubrick Archives, Taschen, 2005. ISBN 3-8228-2284-1
  90. Clarke 1972p. 51
  91. Richter 2002 p. 135
  92. 92.0 92.1 Gelmis(1970)p. 308
  93. Schwam(2001)p. 117
  94. In70mm.com
  95. Bizony p. 159
  96. Examples of the Action Office desk and "Propst Perch" chair appearing in the film can be seen in "Herman Miller Office" (2002) by Leslie Pina on p. 66–71
  97. David Franz, "The Moral Life of Cubicles," The New Atlantis, Number 19, Winter 2008, pp. 132–139
  98. Cubicles had earlier appeared in Jacques Tati's Playtime in 1967
  99. 2001: A Flatware Odyssey. io9 (January 15, 2008). Retrieved on February 25, 2011.
  100. Bradley Friedman (February 27, 2008). 2001: A Space Odyssey – Modern Chairs & Products by Arne Jacobsen Bows at Gibraltar Furniture. Free-Press-Release.com. Retrieved on February 25, 2011.
  101. 2001: A Space Odyssey-Products by Arne Jacobsen. Designosophy (04/Oct/2007)). Retrieved on February 25, 2011.
  102. 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 Phil Patton (February 19, 1998). "Public Eye; 30 Years After '2001': A Furniture Odyssey". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/19/garden/public-eye-30-years-after-2001-a-furniture-odyssey.html. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  103. Fiell, Charlotte and Peter (2005). 1000 Chairs (Taschen 25). Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-4103-X. 
  104. Olivier Mourgue, Designer: (born 1939 in Paris, France). Olivier Mourgue. Retrieved on February 25, 2011.
  105. Article by Walker in Schwam Making of 2001:A Space Odyssey
  106. At least some of the space station is occupied by Hilton hotel. The conversation with the Russian scientists takes place near their front desk.
  107. Walker, Stanley Kubrick Directs p. 224
  108. Between the two lines large red letters reading at top "CAUTION" and at bottom "EXPLOSIVE BOLTS" are smaller black lines reading "MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT INSTRUCTIONS" followed by even smaller lines of four instructions beginning "(1) SELF TEST EXPLOSIVE BOLTS PER INST 14 PARA 3 SEC 5D AFTER EACH EVA", etc. The instructions are generally legible on Blu-Ray editions but not DVD editions of the film.
  109. Bizony p.133
  110. 110.0 110.1 Herb A. Lightman. Front Projection for "2001: A Space Odyssey". American Cinematographer. Retrieved on September 20, 2012.
  111. Bizony p. 113–117
  112. George D. DeMet, The Special Effects of "2001: A Space Odyssey", DFX, July 1999
  113. Bizony p. 138–144
  114. Bizony p.144
  115. Agel p. 129–135
  116. Agel pp.143–146
  117. Agel, p. 150
  118. Douglas Trumbull (June 1968). "Creating Special Effects for 2001". American Cinematographer 49 (6): 412–413, 420–422, 416–419, 441–447, 451–454, 459–461. 
  119. 2001's Pre- and Post-Premiere Edits by Thomas E Brown. Retrieved on January 27, 2012. Kubrick and editor Ray Lovejoy edited the film between April 5 and 9, 1968. Detailed instructions were sent to theater owners already showing the film so that they could do the specified trims themselves. This meant that some of the cuts may have been poorly done in a particular theater, possibly causing the version seen by viewers early in the film's run to vary from theater to theater.
  120. Freeman Dyson, Disturbing the Universe, 1979, pg 189–191, ISBN 0-330-26324-2
  121. 121.0 121.1 2001's Pre- and Post-Premiere Edits by Thomas E Brown. Retrieved on January 27, 2012.
  122. Agel, Jerome (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001. Signet. p. 27. ISBN 0-451-07139-5. 
  123. 2001's Pre- and Post-Premiere Edits by Thomas E Brown. Retrieved on January 27, 2012. Unlike most articles on "The Kubrick Site" no author bio or earlier publication information is given.
  124. Les Paul Robley (Friday, February 1, 2008). 2001: A Space Odyssey (Blu-Ray review). Audio-Video Revolution. Retrieved on January 7, 2011.
  125. 2001: A Space Odyssey (Remastered). Retrieved on January 7, 2011.
  126. DVDTalk.com – news, reviews, bargains, and discussion forum. Kubrick Questions Finally Answered – An In Depth Talk with Leon Vitali. Dvdtalk.com. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  127. Peter Sciretta. Warner Bros Responds: 17 Minutes of "Lost" '2001: A Space Odyssey' Footage Found?. slashfilm.com. Retrieved on January 4, 2011.
  128. Agel p.170
  129. Sneider, Jeff (December 16, 2010). "WB Uncovers Lost Footage From Kubrick's '2001: A Space Odyssey'". http://www.thewrap.com/deal-central/column-post/wb-uncovers-lost-footage-kubricks-2001-space-odyssey-23309. Retrieved December 20, 2010. 
  130. by Larry KlaesMonday, March 30, 2009 (March 30, 2009). Silent Running, running deeper. The Space Review. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  131. h2g2 – '2001: A Space Odyssey' – the Film. BBC (April 26, 2001). Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  132. New Titles – The Stanley Kubrick Archives – Facts. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved on February 5, 2007.
  133. Time Warp – CD Booklet – Telarc Release# CD-80106
  134. LoBrutto, Vincent (1998). Stanley Kubrick. London: Faber and Faber. p. 308. ISBN 0-571-19393-5. 
  135. (Usually translated as "Thus Spake Zarathustra" or occasionally "Thus Spoke Zarathustra" - The book by Nietzsche has been translated both ways and the title of Strauss's music is usually rendered in the original German whenever not discussed in the context of 2001. Although Britannica Online's entry lists the piece as spoke Zarathustra, music encyclopedias usually go with 'spake'. Overall, 'spake' is more common mentioning the Strauss music and 'spoke' more common mentioning the book by Nietzsche. - the soundtrack album gives the former, the movie's credits give the latter).
  136. James M. Keller. Program Notes- Ligeti: Lontano for Large Orchestra. San Francisco Symphony. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
  137. Kosman, Joshua. "György Ligeti—music scores used in '2001' film (obituary)". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Gyorgy-Ligeti-music-scores-used-in-2001-film-2533294.php. Retrieved June 13, 2006. 
  138. Bell Labs: Where "Hal" First Spoke. (Bell Labs Speech Synthesis web site). Retrieved on August 13, 2007.
  139. Chion pp. 4-5, 28.
  140. Pruys, Guido Marc (1997) (in German). Die Rhetorik der Filmsynchronisation: Wie ausländische Spielfilme in Deutschland zensiert, verändert und gesehen werden. Gunter Narr Verlag. p. 107. ISBN 3823342835. 
  141. Fini, Massimo (2009) (in Italian). Nietzsche. L'apolide dell'esistenza. Marsilio Editori. pp. 408–9. ISBN 8831797220. 
  142. David W. Patterson, "Music, Structure and Metaphor in Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey"." American Music, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Autumn, 2004), pp. 460–461
  143. royal society southbank centre. 2001: A Space Odyssey (2010). Archived from the original on July 25, 2010. Retrieved on August 11, 2010.
  144. George Burt (1995). The Art of Film Music. Northeastern University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-55553-270-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=4E9EdlJw_N8C&pg=PA126. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  145. Agel, Jerome (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001. Signet. p. 170. ISBN 0-451-07139-5. 
  146. 146.0 146.1 THOMAS E. BROWN AND PHIL VENDY (March 2, 2000). A TASTE OF BLUE FOOD IN STANLEY KUBRICK'S 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. paper. Retrieved on January 8, 2011.
  147. Michael Coate. 1968: A Roadshow Odyssey- The Original Reserved Seat Engagements Of '2001: A Space Odyssey'. in70mm.com. Retrieved on January 7, 2011.
  148. 148.0 148.1 Michael Coate. 1968: A Roadshow Odyssey- The Original Reserved Seat Engagements Of '2001: A Space Odyssey'. in70mm.com. Retrieved on January 9, 2011.
  149. 149.0 149.1 Hall, Sheldon (April 9, 2011). Introduction to 2001: A Space Odyssey. In70mm.com. Retrieved on March 20, 2012.
  150. 2001: A Re-Release Odyssey, Wired
  151. Press Reviews: 2001: A Space Odyssey, BBC
  152. "MGM/CBS Home Video ad". Billboard Magazine (November 22, 1980). 1980. http://books.google.com/?id=mCQEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT58&lpg=PT58&dq=%22MGM+CBS%22+Billboard#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved April 20, 2011. 
  153. 2001: A Space Odyssey at KRSJR Productions.com. Accessed 2009-09-16. Archived September 18, 2009.
  154. Stanley Kubrick Collection Official Authorized Site (Warner Bros). Warner Bros (October 25, 2008). Archived from the original on September 3, 2010. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  155. Gilliatt, Penelope. "After Man", review of 2001 reprinted from The New Yorker in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  156. Champlin, Charles. Review of 2001 reprinted from The Los Angeles Times in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  157. Sweeney, Louise. Review of 2001 reprinted from The Christian Science Monitor in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  158. French, Philip. Review of 2001 reprinted from an unnamed publication in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  159. Adams, Marjorie. Review of 2001 reprinted from The Boston Globe in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  160. Nick James, et al.. BFI | Sight & Sound | Top Ten Poll 2002 – How the directors and critics voted. Archived from the original on July 29, 2009. Retrieved on July 27, 2009.
  161. Unknown reviewer. Capsule review of 2001 reprinted from Time in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  162. "Critical Debates: 2001: A Space Odyssey". rogerebert.com. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19680101/CRITICALDEBATE/40305008. Retrieved September 26, 2006. 
  163. Stanley Kauffmann, "Lost in the Stars," The New Republic. Retrieved from http://www.krusch.com/kubrick/Q16.html
  164. Adler, Renata. Review of 2001 reprinted from The New York Times in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  165. Review of 2001 by 'Robe'. April 1, 1968
  166. Sarris, Andrew. Review of 2001 review quoted from a WBAI radio broadcast in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  167. Hail the Conquering Hero. FilmComment.com. Retrieved on January 12, 2007.
  168. Simon, John. Review of 2001 reprinted from The New Leader in Jerome Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001, Signet Books, 1970. ISBN 0-451-07139-5
  169. BBC – Films – review – 2001: A Space Odyssey. BBC. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  170. From both a review and a subsequent interview quoted in Brosnan, John (1978). Future Tense: The Cinema of Science Fiction. St. Martin's Press. p. 179. 
  171. Delany's review and Del Rey's blth appear in the 1968 anthology The Year's Best Science Fiction No. 2 edited by Harry Harrison and Brian W. Aldiss. Both reviews are also printed on The Kubrick Site, Del Rey's is at [11] and Delany's at [12]
  172. 172.0 172.1 1969 Hugo Awards. World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  173. 173.0 173.1 Miller, Frank. 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) – Articles. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved on March 20, 2012.
  174. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved on March 20, 2012.
  175. Posted at 06:07 pm in Science Fiction (July 10, 2009). Ridley Scott: "After 2001 -A Space Odyssey, Science Fiction is Dead". Dailygalaxy.com. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  176. In Focus on the Science Fiction Film, edited by William Johnson. Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972,
  177. George D. DeMet. 2001: A Space Odyssey Internet Resource Archive: The Search for Meaning in 2001. Palantir.net (originally an undergrad honors thesis). Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  178. This Day in Science Fiction History — 2001: A Space Odyssey | Science Not Fiction | Discover Magazine. Blogs.discovermagazine.com. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  179. The Making of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty DVD packaged with European version of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty
  180. Robert Jacobs, "Whole Earth or No Earth: The Origin of the Whole Earth Icon in the Ashes of Hiroshima and Nagasaki," The Asia-Pacific Journal Vol 9, Issue 13 No 5, March 28, 2011.
  181. Apple iPad vs Samsung Galaxy: Stanley Kubrick Showed Tablet in '2001: A Space Odyssey' - ABC News
  182. Quoted at Samsung cites Stanley Kubrick's '2001: A Space Odyssey' as prior art argument against iPad design (September 17, 2011). Retrieved on January 27, 2012.
  183. IBTimes Reporter (October 25, 2011). iPhone 4S Siri Goes '2001: Space Odyssey': ThinkGeek's New IRIS 9000 [VIDEO]. International Business Times. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  184. Clint Demeritt (October 26, 2011). Siri: Iris 9000 Helps You Control iPhone 4S From a Distance. Tech and Trend. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  185. Some European Commission official reference is still available on CORDIS archive
  186. Clarke, Arthur (1972). The lost Worlds of 2001. Sidgwick and Jackson. p. 50. ISBN 0 283 97904 6. 
  187. 187.0 187.1 FILM NOMINATIONS 1968. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  188. Premios del CEC a la producción española de 1968 (Spanish). Círculo de Escritores Cinematográficos. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  189. Awards for Stanley Kubrick (Italian). L'accademia del Cinema Italiano. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  190. Winners: 1960s. Kansas City Film Critics Circle. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  191. 191.0 191.1 O'Neil, Thomas (2003). Movie awards: the ultimate, unofficial guide to the Oscars, Golden Globes, critics, Guild & Indie honors. Perigee Book. p. 306. ISBN 039952922. 
  192. Awards for 1968. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  193. Awards / History / 1968 - 21st Annual DGA Awards. Directors Guild of America. Retrieved on 2012-10-16.
  194. AFI's 100 YEARS... AFI.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved on June 9, 2011.
  195. 2001: A Space Odyssey Named the Greatest Sci-Fi Film of All Time By the Online Film Critics Society. Online Film Critics Society. Archived from the original on November 26, 2006. Retrieved on December 15, 2006.
  196. National Film Registry Preservation Board. Library of Congress (September 12, 2011). Retrieved on January 27, 2012.
  197. Sight & Sound: Top Ten Poll 2002. British Film Institute web site. Archived from the original on December 16, 2006. Retrieved on December 15, 2006.
  198. USCCB – (Film and Broadcasting) – Vatican Best Films List. USCCB web site. Archived from the original on April 18, 2007. Retrieved on April 22, 2007.
  199. "Top movies for schools revealed". BBC News. December 13, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-16160605. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  200. See especially the essay "Auteur with a Capital A" by James Gilbert anthologized in Kolker, Robert (2006). Stanley Kubrick's 2001: a space odyssey: new essays. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517452-6. 
  201. discussed for example in Stephanie Schwam's The making of 2001, a space odyssey Google's e-copy has no pagination
  202. "The Film Director as Superstar" (Doubleday and Company: Garden City, New York, 1970) by Joseph Gelmis
  203. Houston, Penelope (1971-04-01). Sight and Sound International Film Quarterly, Volume 40 No. 2, Spring 1971. London: British Film Institute.
  204. Sheridan, Chris. Stanley Kubrick and Symbolism. Retrieved on April 10, 2009. “Reproducing”
  205. 205.0 205.1 Burfoot, Annette (2006). "The Fetal Voyager: Women in Modern Medical Visual Discourse". In Shteir, Ann; Lightman, Bernard. Figuring it out: science, gender, and visual culture. UPNE. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-58465-603-6. 
  206. Grant, Barry Keith (2010). Shadows of Doubt: Negotiations of Masculinity in American Genre Films. Wayne State University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-8143-3457-7. 
  207. 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
  208. reprinted in Schwam, Stephanie (2000). The making of 2001, a space odyssey. Random House. pp. 164–165. ISBN 0-375-75528-4. 
  209. Geduld, Carolyn (1973). Filmguide to 2001: a space odyssey. Indiana University Press. pp. 40, 63. 
  210. LoBrutto, Vincent (1999). Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Da Capo Press. pp. 310, 606. ISBN 978-0-306-80906-4. 
  211. Schwam, Stephanie (2000). The making of 2001, a space odyssey. Random House. pp. 164–165. ISBN 0-375-75528-4. 
  212. See Tim Dirks' synopsis on the AMC movie site.Tim Dirks. 2001: A Space Odyssey. AMC. Retrieved on February 25, 2011.
  213. See Tim Dirks' synopsis on the AMC movie site.Tim Dirks. 2001: A Space Odyssey. AMC. Retrieved on February 25, 2011. He notes that in the ape encounter "With the mysterious monolith in the foreground, the glowing Sun rises over the black slab, directly beneath the crescent of the Moon" and that on the Moon "Again, the glowing Sun, Moon and Earth have formed a conjunctive orbital configuration."
  214. See original Rolling Stone review by Bob McClay reproduced in Schwam, Stephanie (2000). The making of 2001, a space odyssey. 0375755284, 9780375755286: Random House. pp. 164–165. 
  215. Roger Ebert. "2001: A Space Odyssey". Chicago Sun-Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19680412/REVIEWS/804120301/1023. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  216. Webster, Patrick (2010). Love and Death in Kubrick: A Critical Study of the Films from Lolita Through Eyes Wide Shut. McFarland. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7864-5916-2. 
  217. Roger Ebert. "2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)". Chicago Sun-Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19970327/REVIEWS08/401010362/1023. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  218. Caicco, Gregory (2007). Architecture, ethics, and the personhood of place. UPNE. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-58465-653-1. 
  219. Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 707. ISBN 978-0-313-32952-4. 
  220. Christopher Palmer. 'Big Dumb Objects in Science Fiction: Sublimity, Banality, and Modernity,' Extrapolation. Kent: Spring 2006.Vol. 47, Iss. 1; page. 103
  221. Mark Stetson (model shop supervisor) (1984). 2010: The Odyssey Continues (DVD). ZM Productions/MGM. Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070824064532/http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0235153/. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  222. Starship Modeler: Modeling 2001 and 2010 Spacecraft (October 19, 2005). Archived from the original on August 20, 2006. Retrieved on September 26, 2006.
  223. Bentley, Chris (2008). The Complete Gerry Anderson: The Authorised Episode Guide (4th edition). London: Reynolds and Hearn. ISBN 978-1-905287-74-1. 
  224. STARLOG magazine
  225. LoBrutto, Vincent. Stanley Kubrick . London: Faber & Faber Limited, 1997, p.456.
  226. "3001: The Final Odyssey" on Yahoo! Movies (via Wayback Machine)
  227. [13] [14]
  228. Dark Side of the Moon trailer
  229. More than a hoax: William Karel's critical mockumentary dark side of the moon. This URL is a very lengthy excerpt from a longer version in Goliath Business News. A subscription is required to view the entire article.
  230. As discussed on Jay Windley' "clavius.org" site defending the reality of the moonlandings at [15]
  231. [16]. Material on the webmaster of "clavius.org" may be found at About this site and Imdb biography for Jay Windley
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  233. At his own website [17] and at an online forum [18]
  234. Robert Lamb (January 21, 2010). FAKED MOON LANDINGS AND KUBRICK'S 'THE SHINING'. Discovery News. Retrieved on September 6, 2011. The Discovery article is quoted on the film's Amazon.com as a review of the film itself, although it is actually a review of an earlier article that was the basis for the film.
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  236. Mad Magazine No. 125, March 1969
  237. Agel, Jerome (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001. Signet Books. pp. 8–9. 
  238. Clark Douglas (December 21, 2009). DVD Verdict Review: The Mel Brooks Collection. DVD Verdict. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved on November 26, 2010.
  239. Film and Filming, Volume 21 1975 p. 221
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  242. Alberti, John, ed (2005). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2849-0. p. 277 et al.
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  244. Westfahl, Gary, ed (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-32950-0. p. 1232
  245. Alberti, John, ed (2005). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2849-1.
  246. Colin Kennedy (September 2004). "The Ten Best Movie Gags In The Simpsons". Empire. pp. 76.
  247. 20 Funniest Futurama Film Parodies at TotalFilm.com[dead link]
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  249. John Hartl (July 14, 2005). 'Chocolate Factory' is a tasty surprise. MSNBC. Retrieved on December 5, 2010.
  250. Harry Forbes (2005). Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Catholic News. Archived from the original on January 6, 2011. Retrieved on December 4, 2010.
  251. Jenna Wortham (June 18, 2008). Retro Futurism of Wall-E Recalls 2001, Blade Runner. WIRED. Retrieved on December 4, 2010.
  252. Clara Moskowitz (June 27, 2008). "WALL-E spreads the robot love". USA Today. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/science/space/2008-06-27-wall-e-robot-lobe_N.htm. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  253. Lawrence Toppman. Well-focused 'Eye' has a crazy vision. Charlotte Observer. Retrieved on December 4, 2010.
  254. London magazine, 2006 p. 40
  255. A few reference biographies or obituaries for Leslie Nielsen speak as if Space Travesty was a spoof of Kubrick's film.Bolam, Sarah Miles; Bolam, Thomas J. (2011). Fictional Presidential Films: A Comprehensive Filmography of Portrayals from 1930 to 2011. Xlibris Corporation. p. 243. ISBN 1-4628-9318-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=F98vK4yBAaAC&pg=PA243. Retrieved December 10, 2011.  Leslie Nielsen 1926–2010. (Obituary promoting forthcoming daylong Nielsen marathon on Sky network). Sky Movies HD. Archived from the original on January 7, 2011. Retrieved on December 10, 2010.
  256. Nielsen's Airplane which was a scene-for-scene parody of Zero Hour.Abrahams, Jim; Zucker, David; Zucker, Jerry; Davidson, Jon (2000). Airplane! DVD audio commentary (DVD). Paramount Pictures.  Several other films of his were also full parodies of another film.
  257. D.W.Pritchett (March 18, 2002). 2001: A Space Travesty. DVD Empire. Retrieved on December 10, 2010.
  258. Jim Slotek (December 1, 2001). A big empty Space. Jam! Showbiz. Retrieved on December 10, 2010.
  259. Berge Garabedian (2010). (review of) 2001: A Space Travesty. JoBlo Movie Reviews. Retrieved on December 8, 2010.
  260. Airplane II – The Sequel. Retrieved on February 21, 2011.
  261. Patrick Naugle (November 9, 2000). Airplane ii: the sequel. DVD Verdict. Retrieved on February 21, 2011.
  262. Ken Finkleman. Airplane II: The Sequel. The Spinning Image. Retrieved on February 21, 2011.
  263. Erick Klafter (April 23, 2003). Airplane II: The Sequel. The BoxSet. Retrieved on February 21, 2011.
  264. Edge staff (September 6, 2008). "Spore and the Creativity of Science". Edge. http://www.edge-online.com/features/spore-and-creativity-science. Retrieved October 17, 2009. 
  265. Benjamin Svetkey (January 13, 1995). "Videogame Review: SimEarth". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20184081,00.html. Retrieved October 17, 2009. 
  266. Metal Gear Solid Official Missions Handbook, Millenium Books (1998).
  267. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker. (Konami). (2010) "Briefing Files -> Huey -> Strangelove -> '2001: A Space Odyssey'"

References

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  • Richter, Daniel (2002). Moonwatcher's Memoir: A Diary of 2001: A Space Odyssey. foreword by Arthur C. Clarke. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1073-X. 
  • Schwam, Stephanie (ed.), ed. (2000). The Making of 2001: A Space Odyssey. introduction by Jay Cocks. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-75528-4. 
  • Shuldiner, Herbert (1968) How They Filmed '2001: A Space Odyssey', Bonnier Corporation: Popular Science, June 1968, pg. 62–67, Vol. 192, No. 6, ISSN 0161-7370
  • Walker, Alexander (2000). Stanley Kubrick, Director. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-32119-3. 
  • Wheat, Leonard F. (2000). Kubrick's 2001: A Triple Allegory. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3796-X. 
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af:2001: A Space Odyssey (rolprent)

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