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Template:Infobox athletics event

The 100 metres, or 100-meter dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

File:Women's 100M Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015 Gwangju.webm

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest runner in the world." The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world champions, Bolt and Elaine Thompson are the Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have also dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times.

Race dynamics

Start

File:20070701-nk2007-100m.jpg

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[1][2][3]

At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification.[4] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[5] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[6][7]

Mid-race

Runners normally reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[8] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

Finish

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[9] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditions

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal."

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts (explaining why many athletes choose not to breathe for the duration of the race)[citation needed]. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A."[10]

10-second barrier

Main article: 10-second barrier

Sex and ethnicity

Main article: race and sports

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (an Indigenous Australian with Irish heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[11][12][13][14]

In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier.[15] Of the six men's continental record holders, currently three of them were born in Nigeria.

It is believed[citation needed] that biological factors may be largely responsible for the notable success in sprinting events enjoyed by athletes of West African descent. This includes:

  • Relatively less subcutaneous fat on arms and legs and proportionately more lean body and muscle mass, larger quadriceps, and bigger, more developed musculature in general;[citation needed]
  • Higher centre of gravity, generally shorter sitting height, narrower hips, and lighter calves;[citation needed]
  • Faster patellar tendon reflex;[citation needed]
  • Modestly, but significantly, higher levels of plasma testosterone (3–19 per cent), which is anabolic, theoretically contributing to greater muscle mass, lower fat, and the ability to perform at a higher level of intensity with quicker recovery;[citation needed]
  • The ACTN3 protein, a "speed gene" most common among persons of West African descent that renders fast twitch muscle fibres fast.[16][17]
  • And finally, a higher percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibres (Type II) and more anaerobic enzymes, which can translate into more explosive energy.
  • The enzyme creatine kinase is abundantly expressed in these fibres. The enzyme rapidly regenerates the biological fuel molecule ATP needed for the sprint. The enzyme has been reported to be twice as high in subjects of sub-Saharan African descent.[18] Creatine kinase is the final common pathway of muscle activity. It is tightly bound to the muscle fibres and directly fuels fast muscle contraction. Therefore, the creatine kinase system is considered to be the major factor, downstream of other factors, that modulates the biological capacity to sprint.[19]

Top sprinters of differing ancestry, such as Christophe Lemaitre, are believed to be exceptions in that they too likely have the genes favourable for sprinting.[17] Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[20] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[21]

Record performances

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977.[22] The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[23] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, at the 1988 United States Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988.[24]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Greene were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental records

Updated 5 July 2015.[25]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 10.78 +1.6 Murielle Ahoure Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg Ivory Coast
Asia (records) 9.91 +1.8 Femi Ogunode Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China
9.91 +0.6 Femi Ogunode Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar
Europe (records) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron Flag of France.svg France
9.86 +1.3 Jimmy Vicaut Flag of France.svg France
9.86 +1.8 Jimmy Vicaut Flag of France.svg France
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner Flag of the United States.svg United States
Oceania (records) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson Flag of Australia.svg Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen Flag of Australia.svg Australia
South America (records) 10.00[A] +1.6 Robson da Silva Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 11.01 +1.4 Ana Cláudia Lemos Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil

Notes

</dl>

All-time top 25 men

File:Usain Bolt winning.jpg

As of 4 July 2016:[27]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Place Ref
1 9.58 +0.9 Usain BoltFlag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 16 August 2009 Berlin
2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay Flag of the United States.svg United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
−0.1 Yohan Blake Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 23 August 2012 Lausanne
4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 2 September 2008 Lausanne
5 9.74 +0.9 Justin Gatlin Flag of the United States.svg United States 15 May 2015 Doha
6 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 29 August 2010 Rieti
7 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene Flag of the United States.svg United States 16 June 1999 Athens
8 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 4 June 2011 Eugene
9 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago 21 June 2014 Port of Spain
10 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey Flag of Canada.svg Canada 27 July 1996 Atlanta
+0.2 Bruny Surin Flag of Canada.svg Canada 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.3 Trayvon Bromell Flag of the United States.svg United States 25 June 2015 Eugene
+1.6 3 July 2016 [28]
13 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell Flag of the United States.svg United States 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+1.7 Olusoji Fasuba Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 12 May 2006 Ad-Dawhah
+1.3 Mike Rodgers Flag of the United States.svg United States 4 June 2011 Eugene
16 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis Flag of the United States.svg United States 25 August 1991 Tokyo
−0.7 Frankie Fredericks Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia 3 July 1996 Lausanne
+1.8 Ato Boldon Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago 19 April 1998 Walnut
+0.6 Francis Obikwelu Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal 22 August 2004 Athens
+1.4 Keston Bledman Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago 23 June 2012 Port of Spain
+1.3 Jimmy Vicaut Flag of France.svg France 4 July 2015 Saint-Denis
22 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 15 August 1993 Stuttgart
−0.2 Obadele Thompson [A] Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados 11 September 1998 Johannesburg
24 9.88+1.8 Shawn Crawford Flag of the United States.svg United States 19 June 2004 Eugene
+1.0 Walter Dix Flag of the United States.svg United States 8 August 2010 Nottwil
+0.9 Ryan Bailey Flag of the United States.svg United States 29 August 2010 Rieti
+1.0 Michael Frater Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 30 June 2011 Lausanne

More facts about these male runners

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/h). This was achieved during a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record). He also ran times of 9.63 (2012), 9.69, 9.72 (2008), 9.76 (2008, 2011, 2012), 9.77 (2008), 9.79 (2009, 2015), 9.80 (2013), 9.81 (2009, 2016), 9.82 (2010, 2012), 9.83 (2008), 9.84 (2010), 9.85 (2008, 2011, 2013), 9.86 (2009, 2010, 2012), 9.87 (2012, 2015) and 9.88 (2011, 2016)
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006. He also ran times of 9.77 (2014), 9.79 (2012), 9.80 (2016), 9.85 (2004, 2013), 9.88 (2005)
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognised as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran four 9.86 races (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Dwain Chambers time of 9.87 (+2.0) on 14 September 2002 in Paris was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.
  • Jimmy Vicaut also ran 9.86 and 9.88 in June 2016.

Assisted marks

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (9.80 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Tyson Gay (USA) ran 9.68 s (+4.1 m/s) on 29 June 2008 during the U.S. Olympic Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon[29]
  • Obadele Thompson (BAR) ran 9.69 (+5.7 m/s) in El Paso, Texas in April 1996, which stood as the fastest ever 100 metres time for 12 years.
  • Richard Thompson (TTO) ran a wind-assisted 9.74 (exact wind unknown) in Clermont on 31 May 2014.
  • Darvis Patton (USA) ran 9.75 (+4.3 m/s) in Austin, Texas on 30 March 2013.
  • Andre De Grasse (CAN) ran 9.75 (+2.7 m/s) on 12 June 2015 at the NCAA Championships in in Eugene, Oregon
  • Churandy Martina (AHO) ran 9.76 at altitude (+6.1 m/s) in El Paso on 13 May 2006.
  • Trayvon Bromell (USA) ran 9.76 (+3.7 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015.
  • Carl Lewis (USA) ran 9.78 (+5.2 m/s) at the 1988 U.S. Olympic Trials in Indianapolis.
  • Andre Cason (USA) twice ran 9.79 (+4.5 m/s) and (+5.3 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 16 June 1993.
</dl>

All-time top 25 women

File:100m women Golden League 2007 in Zurich.jpg

As of June 2016

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.49 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner Flag of the United States.svg United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64+1.2 Carmelita Jeter Flag of the United States.svg United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
3 10.65 [A] +1.1 Marion Jones Flag of the United States.svg United States 12 September 1998 Johannesburg
4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 29 June 2012 Kingston
+0.3 Elaine Thompson Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 1 July 2016 Kingston [30]
6 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron Flag of France.svg France 19 August 1998 Budapest
7 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 7 September 1996 Milan
+1.0 English Gardner Flag of the United States.svg United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [31]
9 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 10 July 2009 Rome
10 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford Flag of the United States.svg United States 22 August 1984 Zürich
+1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 31 May 2011 Ostrava
12 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova Flag of Russia.svg Russia 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+0.7 Ivet Lalova Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria 19 June 2004 Plovdiv
14 10.78 [A] +1.0 Dawn Sowell Flag of the United States.svg United States 3 June 1989 Provo
10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards Flag of the United States.svg United States 26 June 2008 Eugene
+1.6 Murielle Ahoure Flag of Cote d&#039;Ivoire.svg Ivory Coast 11 June 2016 Montverde [32]
+1.0 Tianna Bartoletta Flag of the United States.svg United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [33]
+1.0 Tori Bowie Flag of the United States.svg United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [34]
19 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei Flag of the People&#039;s Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
−0.1 Inger Miller Flag of the United States.svg United States 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.1 Blessing Okagbare Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 27 July 2013 London
22 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Göhr 22x20px East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
−0.3 Dafne Schippers Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 24 August 2015 Beijing [35]
24 10.82 −1.0Gail Devers Flag of the United States.svg United States 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+1.5 7 July 1993 Lausanne
-0.3 16 August 1993 Stuttgart
+0.4 Gwen Torrence Flag of the United States.svg United States 3 September 1994 Paris
−0.3 Zhanna Block Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine 6 August 2001 Edmonton
−0.7 Sherone Simpson Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 24 June 2006 Kingston

More facts about these female runners

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's world record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[36] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognised as a world record."[37] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[38]

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 10.75.

  • As well as the 10.61 (1988) and 10.62 (1988) mentioned in the more facts section, Florence Griffith-Joyner also ran 10.70 (1988)
  • Carmelita Jeter also ran 10.67 (2009), 10.70 (2011)
  • Marion Jones also ran 10.70 (1999), 10.71 (May 1998), 10.71 (June 1998), 10.71 (June 1998), 10.72 (8 August 1998), 10.72 (25 August 1998), 10.75 (1998)
  • Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce also ran 10.71 (2013), 10.72 (2013), 10.73 (2009), 10.74 (2015), 10.75 (2012)
  • Elaine Thompson also ran 10.71 (13 August 2016)
  • Kerron Stewart also ran 10.75 (August 2009)

Assisted marks

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (10.82 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Tori Bowie of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+3.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015 and 10.74 (+3.1) on July 3 2016.
  • Blessing Okagbare of Nigeria ran a wind-assisted 10.75 (+2.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 1 June 2013.
  • Marshevet Hooker of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.76 (+3.4) in Eugene, Oregon on 27 June 2008.
  • Gail Devers of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in San Jose, California on 28 May 1994.
  • Ekateríni Thánou of Greece ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in Rethimnó, Greece on 29 May 1999.
  • Gwen Torrence of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+5.0) in Indianapolis, Indiana on 16 July 1988.
  • Muna Lee of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+3.3) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2009.
  • Marlies Göhr of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.79 (+3.3) in Cottbus, East Germany on 16 July 1980.
  • Kelli White of the USA ran a wind assisted 10.79 (+2.3) in Carson, California on June 1, 2001. This performance was later annulled due to doping offense.
  • Pam Marshall of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.80 (+2.9) in Eugene, Oregon on 20 June 1986.
  • Jenna Prandini of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.81 (+3.6) in Eugene, Oregon on 2 July 2016.
  • Silke Gladisch of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.82 (+2.2) in Rome, Italy on 30 August 1987.
</dl>

Best Year Performances

As of August, 2016

Men

YearTimeAthletePlace
1972 10.07 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Valeriy Borzov (URS) Munich
1973 10.15 Flag of the United States.svg Steve Williams (USA) Dakar
1974 9.9h Flag of the United States.svg Steve Williams (USA) Los Angeles
1975 10.05 Flag of the United States.svg Steve Riddick (USA) Zürich
1976 10.06 Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Hasely Crawford (TRI) Montreal
1977 9.98A Flag of Cuba.svg Silvio Leonard (CUB) Guadalajara
1978 10.07(A) Flag of the United States.svg Clancy Edwards (USA)
Flag of the United States.svg Eddie Hart (USA)
Flag of the United States.svg Steve Williams (USA)
Eugene
Colorado Springs(A)
Zürich
1979 10.01A Flag of Italy.svg Pietro Mennea (ITA) Ciudad de Mexico
1980 10.02 Flag of the United States.svg James Sanford (USA) Westwood
1981 10.00 Flag of the United States.svg Carl Lewis (USA) Dallas
1982 10.00 Flag of the United States.svg Carl Lewis (USA) Modesto
1983 9.93A Flag of the United States.svg Calvin Smith (USA) Colorado Springs
1984 9.96 Flag of the United States.svg Mel Lattany (USA) Athens
1985 9.98 Flag of the United States.svg Carl Lewis (USA) Modesto
1986 10.00 Flag of Nigeria.svg Chidi Imoh (NGR) Berlin
1987 9.93 Flag of the United States.svg Carl Lewis (USA) Rome
1988 9.92 Flag of the United States.svg Carl Lewis (USA) Seoul
1989 9.94 Flag of the United States.svg Leroy Burrell (USA) Houston
1990 9.96 Flag of the United States.svg Leroy Burrell (USA) Villeneuve d'Ascq; Sestriere(A)
1991 9.86 Flag of the United States.svg Carl Lewis (USA) Tokyo
1992 9.93 Flag of the United States.svg Michael Marsh (USA) Walnut
1993 9.87 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Linford Christie (GBR) Stuttgart
1994 9.85 Flag of the United States.svg Leroy Burrell (USA) Lausanne
1995 9.91 Flag of Canada.svg Donovan Bailey (CAN) Montreal
1996 9.84 Flag of Canada.svg Donovan Bailey (CAN) Atlanta
1997 9.86 Flag of the United States.svg Maurice Greene (USA) Athens
1998 9.86 Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Ato Boldon (TRI) Walnut; Athens
1999 9.79 Flag of the United States.svg Maurice Greene (USA) Athens
2000 9.86 Flag of the United States.svg Maurice Greene (USA) Berlin
2001 9.82 Flag of the United States.svg Maurice Greene (USA) Edmonton
2002 9.89 Flag of the United States.svg Maurice Greene (USA) Roma
2003 9.93 Flag of Australia.svg Patrick Johnson (AUS) Mito
2004 9.85 Flag of the United States.svg Justin Gatlin (USA) Athens
2005 9.77 Flag of Jamaica.svg Asafa Powell (JAM) Athens
2006 9.77 Flag of Jamaica.svg Asafa Powell (JAM) Gateshead; Zürich
2007 9.74 Flag of Jamaica.svg Asafa Powell (JAM) Rieti
2008 9.69 Flag of Jamaica.svg Usain Bolt (JAM) Beijing
2009 9.58 Flag of Jamaica.svg Usain Bolt (JAM) Berlin
2010 9.78 Flag of the United States.svg Tyson Gay (USA)
Flag of Jamaica.svg Nesta Carter (JAM)
London
Rieti
2011 9.76 Flag of Jamaica.svg Usain Bolt (JAM) Brussels
2012 9.63 Flag of Jamaica.svg Usain Bolt (JAM) London
2013 9.77 Flag of Jamaica.svg Usain Bolt (JAM) Moscow
2014 9.77 Flag of the United States.svg Justin Gatlin (USA) Brussels
2015 9.74 Flag of the United States.svg Justin Gatlin (USA) Doha
2016 9.80 Flag of the United States.svg Justin Gatlin (USA) Eugene

Women

YearTimeAthletePlace
1972 11.07 22x20px Renate Stecher (GDR) Munich
1973 11.07 22x20px Renate Stecher (GDR) Dresden
1974 11.13 Flag of Poland.svg Irena Szewinska (POL)
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Rome
1975 11.13 22x20px Renate Stecher (GDR) Dresden
1976 11.01 Flag of Germany.svg Annegret Richter (FRG) Montreal
1977 10.88 22x20px Marlies Göhr (GDR) Dresden
1978 10.94 22x20px Marlies Göhr (GDR) Dresden
1979 10.97 22x20px Marlies Göhr (GDR)
Flag of the United States.svg Evelyn Ashford (USA)
Dresden
Walnut
1980 10.93 22x20px Marlies Göhr (GDR) Dresden
1981 10.90A Flag of the United States.svg Evelyn Ashford (USA) Colorado Springs
1982 10.88 22x20px Marlies Göhr (GDR) Karl-Marx-Stadt
1983 10.79A Flag of the United States.svg Evelyn Ashford (USA) Colorado Springs
1984 10.76 Flag of the United States.svg Evelyn Ashford (USA) Zürich
1985 10.86 22x20px Marlies Göhr (GDR) Berlin
1986 10.88 Flag of the United States.svg Evelyn Ashford (USA) Rieti
1987 10.86 Flag of Bulgaria.svg Anelia Nuneva (BUL)
Flag of Germany.svg Silke Möller (GER)
Beograd
Potsdam
1988 10.49 Flag of the United States.svg Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA) Indianapolis
1989 10.78A Flag of the United States.svg Dawn Sowell (USA) Provo
1990 10.78 Flag of Jamaica.svg Merlene Ottey (JAM) Sevilla
1991 10.79 Flag of Jamaica.svg Merlene Ottey (JAM) Vigo
1992 10.80 Flag of Jamaica.svg Merlene Ottey (JAM) Salamanca
1993 10.82 Flag of the United States.svg Gail Devers (USA)
Flag of Jamaica.svg Merlene Ottey (JAM)
Lausanne;Stuttgart
Stuttgart
1994 10.77 Flag of Russia.svg Irina Privalova (RUS) Lausanne
1995 10.84 Flag of the United States.svg Gwen Torrence (USA) Gothenburg
1996 10.74 Flag of Jamaica.svg Merlene Ottey (JAM) Milano
1997 10.76 Flag of the United States.svg Marion Jones (USA) Brussels
1998 10.65A Flag of the United States.svg Marion Jones (USA) Johannesburg
1999 10.70 Flag of the United States.svg Marion Jones (USA) Sevilla
2000 10.78 Flag of the United States.svg Marion Jones (USA) Sevilla
2001 10.82 Flag of Ukraine.svg Zhanna Block (UKR) Edmonton
2002 10.83 Flag of Ukraine.svg Zhanna Block (UKR) Heusden-Zolder
2003 10.86 Flag of the United States.svg Chryste Gaines (USA) Monaco
2004 10.77 Flag of Bulgaria.svg Ivet Lalova (BUL) Plovdiv
2005 10.84 Flag of the Bahamas.svg Chandra Sturrup (BAH) Lausanne
2006 10.82 Flag of Jamaica.svg Sherone Simpson (JAM) Kingston
2007 10.89 Flag of Jamaica.svg Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM) Kingston
2008 10.78 Flag of Jamaica.svg Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)
Flag of the United States.svg Torri Edwards (USA)
Beijing
Eugene
2009 10.64 Flag of the United States.svg Carmelita Jeter (USA) Shanghai
2010 10.78 Flag of Jamaica.svg Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM) Eugene
2011 10.70 Flag of the United States.svg Carmelita Jeter (USA) Eugene
2012 10.70 Flag of Jamaica.svg Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM) Kingston
2013 10.71 Flag of Jamaica.svg Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM) Moscow
2014 10.80 Flag of the United States.svg Tori Bowie (USA) Monaco
2015 10.74 Flag of Jamaica.svg Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM) Saint-Denis
2016 10.70 Flag of Jamaica.svg Elaine Thompson (JAM) Kingston

Top 10 Junior (under-20) men

Updated 16 April 2016[39]

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Ref
1 9.97+1.8 Trayvon Bromell Flag of the United States.svg United States 13 June 2014 Eugene
2 10.00+1.6 Trentavis Friday Flag of the United States.svg United States 5 July 2014 Eugene
3 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Saint-Denis
+1.6 Jeff Demps Flag of the United States.svg United States 28 June 2008 Eugene
+0.9 [40] Yoshihide Kiryu Flag of Japan.svg Japan 29 April 2013 Hiroshima
6 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland Flag of the United States.svg United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain
7 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry Flag of the United States.svg United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre Flag of France.svg France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad
+1.9 Abdullah Abkar Mohammed Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 15 April 2016 Norwalk [41]
10 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona

Notes

  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 5 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinter Davidson Ezinwa ran 10.05 (4 January 1990) respectively, but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships[42]
</dl>

Top 10 Junior (under-20) women

Updated 25 July 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr 22x20px East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden
2 10.89+1.8 Katrin Krabbe 22x20px East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin
3 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill Flag of the United States.svg United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [43]
4 10.99+0.9 Ángela Tenorio Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador 22 July 2015 Toronto [44]
5 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller 22x20px East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+0.6 English Gardner Flag of the United States.svg United States 14 May 2011 Tucson
7 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams Flag of the United States.svg United States 5 June 1999 Boise
8 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight Flag of the United States.svg United States 27 June 2008 Eugene
9 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead Flag of the United States.svg United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
10 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney Flag of the United States.svg United States 5 July 2014 Eugene

Top 10 Youth (under-18) boys

Updated 3 June 2016

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Ref
1 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu Flag of Japan.svg Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi
2 10.20 +1.5 Tlotliso Leotlela Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 7 September 2015 Apia [45]
3 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu
+1.2 Rynell Parson Flag of the United States.svg United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
5 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown
6 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels Flag of the United States.svg United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville
+1.6 Jeff Demps Flag of the United States.svg United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville
+0.9 Jhevaughn Matherson Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 5 March 2016 Kingston [46]
9 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom Flag of the United States.svg United States 21 July 1994 Lisboa
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi
11 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas Flag of the United States.svg United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk
+1.6 Curtis Johnson Flag of the United States.svg United States 30 June 1990 Fresno
+1.0 Ivory Williams Flag of the United States.svg United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay
+1.9 Raheem Chambers Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 20 April 2014 Fort-de-France

Top 10 Youth (under-18) girls

Updated 20 June 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill Flag of the United States.svg United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [43]
2 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney Flag of the United States.svg United States 5 July 2014 Eugene [47]
3 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough Flag of the United States.svg United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
4 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones Flag of the United States.svg United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk
−0.5 Angela Williams Flag of the United States.svg United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville
6 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo Flag of the United States.svg United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
7 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen Flag of the United States.svg United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs
8 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle Flag of Australia.svg Australia 15 October 1968 Mexico City
9 11.24 -1.0 Ewa Swoboda Flag of Poland.svg Poland
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article 100 metres, that was deleted or is being discussed for deletion, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Author(s): Little Mountain 5 Search for "100 metres" on Google
View Wikipedia's deletion log of "100 metres"
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||4 June 2015 || Sankt Pölten
10 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh Flag of the United States.svg United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+0.8 Jodie Williams Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford

Paralympic men

File:Men's 100m T13 Final, 2012 Paralympics.jpg

Updated to 1 January 2015[48]

Classification Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
T11 10.92 +1.8 David Brown Flag of the United States.svg United States 18 April 2014 Walnut
T12 10.66 −0.4 Elchin Muradov Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan 19 June 2010 Imola
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland 1 September 2012 London
T32 23.25 0.0 Martin McDonagh Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland 13 August 1999 Nottingham
T33 16.81 +0.8 Ahmad Almutairi Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait 20 October 2014 Incheon
T34 15.33 +1.2 Walid Ktila Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia 27 February 2014 Sharjah
T35 12.29 −0.3 Yang Sen Flag of the People&#039;s Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China 13 September 2008 Beijing
T36 11.90 -0.5 Evgenii Shvetcov Flag of Russia.svg Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T37 11.48 -0.7 Andrey Vdovin Flag of Russia.svg Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T38 10.79 +0.4 Evan O'Hanlon Flag of Australia.svg Australia 1 September 2012 London
T42 12.11 +1.2 Heinrich Popow Flag of Germany.svg Germany 12 July 2013 Leverkusen
T43 10.57 +1.9 Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 28 July 2013 London
T44 10.75 +1.9 Richard Browne Flag of the United States.svg United States 28 July 2013 London
T45 10.94 +0.2 Yohansson Nascimento Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 6 September 2012 London
T47 10.72 0.0 Ajibola Adeoye Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 6 September 1992 Barcelona
T51 21.11 +1.2 Toni Piispanen Flag of Finland.svg Finland 17 May 2012 Pratteln
T52 16.73 +0.4 Paul Nitz Flag of the United States.svg United States 20 May 2012 Nottwil
T53 14.17 +1.0 Brent Lakatos Flag of Canada.svg Canada 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T54 13.63 +1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti Flag of Finland.svg Finland 1 September 2012 London

Paralympic women

Updated to October 2015[49]

Classification Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
T11 12.01 +1.2 Terezinha Guilhermina Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 5 September 2012 London
T12 11.48 0.0 Omara Durand Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba 28 October 2015 Doha
T13 11.89 +1.2 Ilse Hayes Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 23 April 2015 Sao Paulo
T32 37.67 0.0 Lindsay Wright Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 21.59 −0.4 Kristen Messer Flag of the United States.svg United States 31 August 2012 London
T34 17.31 +1.0 Hannah Cockroft Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T35 14.63 +0.4 Maria Lyle Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 31 May 2014 Bedford
T36 13.82 +0.3 Wang Fang Flag of the People&#039;s Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China 16 September 2008 Beijing
T37 13.68 +0.4 Mandy François-Elie Flag of France.svg France 8 June 2013 Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire
T38 13.04 +0.3 Sophie Hahn Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 18 May 2014 Loughborough
T42 15.18 −0.5 Martina Caironi Flag of Italy.svg Italy 6 June 2013 Rome
T43 12.96 +0.8 Marlou van Rhijn Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 15 June 2013 Berlin
T44 12.98 0.0 April Holmes Flag of the United States.svg United States 1 July 2006 Atlanta
T45 14.00 0.0 G Cole Flag of Canada.svg Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 32.08 0.0 V Hill Flag of the United States.svg United States 27 August 1989 Stoke Mandeville
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell Flag of Canada.svg Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.22 −0.2 Huang Lisha Flag of the People&#039;s Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China 12 September 2008 Beijing
T54 15.82 +0.5 Wenjun Liu Flag of the People&#039;s Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China 8 September 2012 London

Olympic medallists

Men

Template:Olympic medalists in men's 100 metres

Women

Template:Olympic medalists in women's 100 metres

World Championship medallists

Men

Template:World Championships in Athletics medalists in men's 100 metres

Women

Template:World Championships in Athletics medalists in women's 100 metres

See also

References

  1. BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
  2. The Day – 23 January 1983
  3. http://www.athleticsweekly.com/messageboard/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=3893
  4. "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/athletics/4433815.stm. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  5. "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/athletics/4521963.stm. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  6. Christopher Clarey (28 August 2011). "Who Can Beat Bolt in the 100? Himself". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/29/sports/bolt-is-disqualified-in-100-at-worlds-blake-wins.html. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  7. "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. http://daegu2011.iaaf.org//newslistdetail.aspx?id=61468. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance. Speedendurance.com (22 August 2008). Retrieved on 7 August 2012.
  9. Sandre-Tom <!-i- BOT GENERATED AUTHOR -->. IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164. IAAF. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved on 23 August 2009.
  10. 100 metres IAAF
  11. Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
  12. The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
  13. Athlete Profiles – Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
  14. Jad, Adrian (July 2011). Christophe Lemaitre 100m 9.92s +2.0 (Video) – Officially the Fastest White Man in History. adriansprints.com. Retrieved on 2011-07-31.
  15. http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/athletics/33041325
  16. Entine, Jon (8 December 2012). "The DNA Olympics -- Jamaicans Win Sprinting 'Genetic Lottery' -- and Why We Should All Care". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonentine/2012/08/12/the-dna-olympics-jamaicans-win-sprinting-genetic-lottery-and-why-we-should-all-care/. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Demirel, Evin (8 August 2012). "What Made Arkansas’ Record-Setting 2012 Track Team So Unique". The Sports Seer. http://thesportsseer.com/2012/08/08/what-made-arkansas-record-setting-2012-track-team-so-unique/. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  18. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0032471
  19. http://sjss-sportsacademy.edu.rs/archive/details/full/muscle-metabolism-and-fatigue-during-sprint-exercise-effects-of-creatine-supplementation-11.html
  20. Who Do You Think You Are – Colin Jackson. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  21. Barling, Kurt (2000-09-04). Runaway success in the sports arena is never simply a question of race. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  22. Progression of 100 meters world record. ESPN. Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
  23. 100 Metres Results. IAAF (16 August 2009). Retrieved on 31 May 2011.
  24. 100 Metres All Time. IAAF (9 March 2009). Retrieved 6 May 2009. Archived 8 May 2009.
  25. 100 metres records. IAAF (6 September 2011). Retrieved 9 June 2011. Archived 6 September 2011.
  26. 60 Metres Records. IAAF (4 April 2009). Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  27. Top List – 100m. IAAF. Retrieved on 24 August 2015.
  28. Roy Jordan (4 July 2016). "Six world leads on third day of US Olympic Trials". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/us-olympic-trials-2016-felix-gatlin-henderson. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  29. Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008),"Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" New York Times
  30. Sherdon Cowan (1 July 2016). "#NatlTrials: Elaine Thompson storms to 10.70s win in 100m". jamaicaobserver.com. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/-NatlTrials--Elaine-Thompson-storms-to-10-70s-win-in-100m. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  31. Roy Jordan (4 July 2016). "Six world leads on third day of US Olympic Trials". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/us-olympic-trials-2016-felix-gatlin-henderson. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  32. Cathal Dennehy (11 June 2016). "Ahoure powers to African 100m record of 10.78 in Florida". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/murielle-ahoure-100m-montverde-2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016. 
  33. Roy Jordan (4 July 2016). "Six world leads on third day of US Olympic Trials". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/us-olympic-trials-2016-felix-gatlin-henderson. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  34. Roy Jordan (4 July 2016). "Six world leads on third day of US Olympic Trials". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/us-olympic-trials-2016-felix-gatlin-henderson. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  35. "100m Results". IAAF. 24 August 2015. http://media.aws.iaaf.org/competitiondocuments/pdf/4875/AT-100-W-f----.RS6.pdf. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  36. Pritchard, W. G. (July 2006). Mathematical Models of Running. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved on 1 October 2012.
  37. Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). Wind Assistance. Brunel University. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved on 25 August 2008.
  38. http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=W/all=y/legal=A/disc=100/detail.html
  39. Top List – 100m. IAAF. Retrieved on 3 April 2014.
  40. Kiryu's 10.01 (+0.9 m/s) in 2013 is invalidated due to the type of wind-measuring .Jon Mulkeen (29 April 2013). "Kiryu equals World junior 100m record". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/kiryu-equals-world-junior-100m-record. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  41. Mt. SAC Relays 2016 – Friday Track Results. mtsacrelays.com (15 April 2016). Retrieved on 16 April 2016.
  42. Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
  43. 43.0 43.1 Jon Mulkeen (20 June 2015). "Hill breaks world youth 100m best and American junior record with 10.98". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/candace-hill-world-youth-100m-high-school-rec. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  44. 100m Results. results.toronto2015.org (22 July 2015). Retrieved on 26 July 2015.
  45. Phil Minshull (7 September 2015). "Leotlela clocks second fastest ever youth 100m with 10.20 in Samoa". IAAF. http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/leotlela-commonewealth-youth-100m. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  46. Raymond Graham (6 March 2016). "Matherson sprints to National Youth record". jamaica-gleaner.com. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/sports/20160306/matherson-sprints-national-youth-record. Retrieved 3 June 2016. 
  47. "Florida's Whitney sets world junior 200 record". www.newsobserver.com. 7 July 2014. http://www.newsobserver.com/2014/07/07/3989045/floridas-whitney-sets-world-junior.html. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  48. IPC Athletics World Records – Men's 100 m. IPC (4 January 2015). Retrieved on 4 January 2015.
  49. IPC Athletics World Records – Women's 100 m. International Paralympic Committee (4 January 2015). Retrieved on 4 January 2015.

External links

Template:Athletics events


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